A number of sand fly species present in Europe are vectors of human and canine leishmaniasis, and sand fly fevers.
Leishmaniasis is a tropical/sub-tropical disease, spread by the bite of infected sandflies. There are different forms of leishmaniasis in people: cutaneous leishmaniasis causes skin sores, visceral leishmaniasis causes systemic disease.
Toscana virus infection
Toscana virus is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted by sand flies in Mediterranean countries.
Phlebotomine sand flies
A number of sand fly species are present in Europe and in recent years, their range has increased. They are vectors of human and canine leishmaniasis, and sand fly fevers caused by phleboviruses.