Prevention and control measures for Zika virus disease

Personal protective measures for Zika virus disease

How can people get infected with Zika virus?

In most cases Zika virus is caught by getting bitten by a female Aedes aegypti mosquito. These mosquitoes are mostly active during daytime and can also transmit other diseases such as dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes can be found in warm tropical climates and does not survive in cooler climate temperatures. Zika can also be transmitted by the Aedis albopictus mosquito, although it is still contested how effective Aedes albopictus is in transmitting the disease.

There is also evidence of transmission through sexual contacts and possibly also through blood donation, as well as from mother to child.

How can Zika be prevented?

The best protection from Zika virus is preventing mosquito bites indoors and outdoors, especially from sunrise to sunset when mosquitos are most active.
Such measures include:

  • Use mosquito repellent in accordance with the instructions indicated on the product label.
  • Wearing long-sleeved shirts and long trousers
  • Sleeping or resting in screened or air-conditioned rooms
  • Using mosquito nets

Other measures:

  • Using a condom when staying in an area with active Zika transmission and continuing to do so for at least eight weeks after returning from this area will reduce the risk of sexual transmission. If symptoms were experienced, condoms should be used for six months following the cessation of symptoms.
  • Travellers returning from Zika-affected areas are not allowed to donate blood until the risk of infection has passed, which is 28 days after returning from a Zika-affected area.

Latest personal protective measures for travellers

Publication

Rapid risk assessment: Zika virus disease in Var department, France

Risk assessment -

Publication

Zika virus transmission worldwide

Risk assessment -

Control measures for Zika virus disease

ECDC has produced guidelines to support the implementation of tailored surveillance for invasive mosquito species of public health relevance. This guideline document provides accurate information and technical support for focused data collection in the field, gives cost estimates, and suggests adaptations according to the evolution of the epidemiological situation. 

Publication

Guidelines for the surveillance of invasive mosquitoes in Europe

Technical guidance -

Peer-Reviewed Publication

Assessing Seasonal Risks for the Introduction and Mosquito-borne Spread of Zika Virus in Europe

Jan 2016

Peer-Reviewed Publication

Public health significance of invasive mosquitoes in Europe

Aug 2013

Peer-Reviewed Publication

Mosquito-borne disease surveillance by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control

Aug 2013

Patient and case management for Zika virus disease

Data

Laboratory tests for Zika virus diagnostic

Tool -

Data

Algorithm for public health management of cases under investigation for Zika virus infection

Tool -

Case definition for surveillance of Zika virus infection