Guidelines for the surveillance of invasive mosquitoes in Europe
ECDC has produced these guidelines which aim to support the implementation of tailored surveillance for invasive mosquito species of public health relevance. This guideline document provides accurate information and technical support for focused data collection in the field, gives cost estimates, and suggests adaptations according to the evolution of the epidemiological situation. It also contributes to the harmonisation of surveillance methods and information records at EU level so that data from different countries/areas can be compared over time. It intends to provide support to professionals involved in implementing IMS surveillance or control, to decision- and policy-makers and stakeholders in public health, but also to non-experts in mosquito surveillance and control. The suggested methods may be applicable in the whole geographic area of Europe (thus in all EU Member States and EEA/EFTA countries, including EU Outermost Regions (ORs), but not Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs).
The guidelines aim to assist the Member States in implementing tailored vector surveillance of invasive mosquitoes. They should also help to improve surveillance coverage and harmonize data collection at EU level, so that data from different countries and areas can be compared.
The spread of invasive mosquitoes has increased considerably within Europe, presenting a threat to the public health as these species show significant capacity to transmit diseases. The recent notifications of autochthonous cases of dengue and chikungunya prove that Europe is vulnerable for these diseases in areas where the vector (Aedes albopictus) is present.
The ECDC guidelines address surveillance of invasive mosquito species in Europe: Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. atropalpus, Ae. japonicus, Ae. koreicus, and Ae. Triseriatus. It provides accurate information and technical support, for field data collection at all stages of mosquito surveillance - from strategic issues and steps for the decision-makers and stakeholders to operational issues and steps for the professionals and non-experts. The report finally gives cost estimates of the planned programmes and suggests adaptations. The proposed measures are tailored according to the evolution of the epidemiological situation, which is the presence and abundance of mosquitoes in the area. They may be applied in the whole geographic area of Europe: EU, EEA/EFTA countries, including EU Outermost Regions (ORs), but not Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs).
The mosquito guidelines were developed following a thorough literature review, experts’ field experience, field missions, contributions by entomologists, public health experts and end users from 17 EU, EFTA and candidate countries. ECDC will also update the guidelines in the future to take into account possible changes in the vector fauna or mosquito-borne disease risk.
Two projects addressing complementary issues on control of invasive mosquitoes and on international regulation for vector surveillance and control, are developed by the European Mosquito Control Association (EMCA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) respectively.
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