Autochthonous transmission of dengue virus in EU/EEA, 2010-2020

Dengue is an Aedes-borne disease widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Globally, the virus is predominantly transmitted by the Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. While Ae. aegypti is so far not established in continental EU, Ae. albopictus is established in the southern and central parts of the EU and is spreading. 

Dengue is not endemic in the EU/EEA and the vast majority of the cases are travellers infected outside of the EU/EEA.  When the environmental conditions are favourable, in areas where Ae. albopictus is established, viraemic travel-related cases may generate a local transmission of the virus, as demonstrated by the sporadic events of dengue virus transmission since 2010. 

Year Country, region, municipalities Number of autochthonous cases Probable period of circulation Probable origin of the primary travel-related case Virus References
2010 Croatia, Korčula Island and the Pelješac peninsula

Two Croatian cases (and seven probable cases in same area with IgG and IgM positive)

One case among a German traveller. 

August–October Unknown DEN-1 [1-3]
2010 France, Alpes-Maritimes department, Nice Two  End August–September Martinique DEN-1 [4-6]
2013 France, Bouches–du-Rhône department, Venelles One  October Guadeloupe DEN-2* [6, 7]
2014 France, Var department, Toulon One  Early August Unknown DEN-1 (central America) [6, 8]
2014 France, Var department, Toulon One  Early September Unknown DEN-2 (Asia) [6, 8]
2014 France, Bouches-du-Rhône department, Aubagne Two  Late August–September Thailand DEN-2 (Asia) [6, 8]
2015 France, Gard department, Nîmes Eight  July–September  French Polynesia DEN-1 [6, 9, 10]
2018 France, Alpes Maritimes department, Saint-Laurent-du-Var Five September–October Unknown DEN-2 (Asia) [6,11] 
2018 France, Hérault department, Clapiers Two September–August  Unknown DEN-1 (central America) [6, 11] 
2018 France, Gard department, Nîmes One October French Polynesia DEN-1 (Pacific) [6]
2018 Spain, Murcia region or province of Cádiz Three August-September Unknown DEN-1 [11-12]
2018 Spain, Catalonia region One October Unknown DEN-1 [13, 14]
2019 Spain, Catalonia region One September Unknown DEN-1 [15, 16]
2019 France, Alpes-Maritimes department, Vallauris Seven Late August–September Unknown DEN-1 [16, 17]
2019 France, Rhône department, Caluire-et-Cuire Two July South-east Asia Unknown [16, 18]
2019 Spain, municipality of Madrid One** August-September Cuba DEN-1 [19]
2020 France, Hérault department, Cessenon-sur-Orb One Mid-July Costa Rica DEN-1 [20]
2020

Italy, Veneto region, Montecchio Maggiore

Five Early August Indonesia DEN-1 [21, 22]
2020 France, Alpes-Maritime Department, Nice Two End of August - early September  Unknown Unknown [23, 24]
2020 France, Var department, la Croix Valmer One End of August - early September  Unknown Unknown [25]

 

DEN-1 and DEN-2: Dengue serotype 1 and 2, respectively; *: by seroneutralization; ** the case was infected through sexual transmission.

 

References:

1. Gjenero-Margan I, Aleraj B, Krajcar D, Lesnikar V, Klobucar A, Pem-Novosel I, et al. Autochthonous dengue fever in Croatia, August-September 2010. Euro Surveill. 2011 Mar 3;16(9).

2. Kurolt IC, Betica-Radic L, Dakovic-Rode O, Franco L, Zelena H, Tenorio A, et al. Molecular characterization of dengue virus 1 from autochthonous dengue fever cases in Croatia. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013 Mar;19(3):E163-5.

3. Schmidt-Chanasit J, Haditsch M, Schoneberg I, Gunther S, Stark K, Frank C. Dengue virus infection in a traveller returning from Croatia to Germany. Euro Surveill. 2010 Oct 07;15(40).

4. Vega-Rua A, Zouache K, Caro V, Diancourt L, Delaunay P, Grandadam M, et al. High efficiency of temperate Aedes albopictus to transmit chikungunya and dengue viruses in the Southeast of France. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e59716.

5. G La Ruche YS, A Armengaud, F Peloux-Petiot, P Delaunay, P Desprès, A Lenglet, F Jourdain, I Leparc-Goffart, F Charlet, L Ollier, K Mantey, T Mollet, J P Fournier, R Torrents, K Leitmeyer, P Hilairet, H Zeller, W Van Bortel, D Dejour-alamanca, M Grandadam, M Gastellu-Etchegorry. First two autochthonous dengue virus infections in metropolitan France, September 2010. . Eurosurveillance. 2010;15(39).

6. Franke F GS, Cochet A, Jeannin C, Leparc-Goffart I, de Valk H, et al. Émergences de dengue et de chikungunya en France métropolitaine, 2010-2018. Bull Epidémiol Hebd. 2019;19-20:374-82.

7. Marchand E, Prat C, Jeannin C, Lafont E, Bergmann T, Flusin O, et al. Autochthonous case of dengue in France, October 2013. Euro Surveill. 2013 Dec 12;18(50):20661.

8. Giron S, Rizzi J, Leparc-Goffart I, Septfons A, Tine R, Cadiou B, et al. New occurrence of autochthonous cases of dengue fever in southeast France, August-September 2014 Bulletin épidémiologique hebdomadaire,. 2014 2015 Apr 28;13-14:217.

9. Succo T, Leparc-Goffart I, Ferre JB, Roiz D, Broche B, Maquart M, et al. Autochthonous dengue outbreak in Nimes, South of France, July to September 2015. Euro Surveill. 2016 May 26;21(21).

10. Succo T, Noel H, Nikolay B, Maquart M, Cochet A, Leparc-Goffart I, et al. Dengue serosurvey after a 2-month long outbreak in Nimes, France, 2015: was there more than met the eye? Euro Surveill. 2018 Jun;23(23).

11. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Local transmission of dengue fever in France and Spain – 2018 — 22 October 2018. Stockholm: ECDC; 2018.

12. Monge S, Garcia-Ortuzar V, Lopez Hernandez B, Lopaz Perez MA, Delacour-Estrella S, Sanchez-Seco MP, et al. Characterization of the first autochthonous dengue outbreak in Spain (August-September 2018). Acta Trop. 2020 May;205:105402.
13. Ministerio de Sanidad Consumo Y Bienestar Social. Primeros casos de dengue autóctono en España. Actualización noviembre 2018. [Internet]. 2018 [updated 23 November 2018; cited 2019 20 September]. 

14. Ministerio de Sanidad Consumo Y Bienestar Social. Dengue autóctono en España 2ª actualización [Internet]. 2018 [updated 31 May 2018; cited 2019 20 September]. 

15. Agència de Salut Pública de Catalunya (ASPCAT). L'Agència de Salut Pública confirma un altre cas de dengue autòcton a Catalunya [Internet]. 2019 [updated 18 September 2019; cited 2019 20 September]. Available from: http://salutpublica.gencat.cat/ca/detalls/Article/Dengue-autocton

16. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Rapid risk assessment: Autochthonous cases of dengue in Spain and France. Stockholm: ECDC; 2019 [updated 1 Oct 2019]. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/rapid-risk-assessment-a…

17. Sante Publique France - Agence regionale de sante - Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur. Veille Hebdo Point no 2019-41 publié le mercredi 16 octobre 2019. Marseille: Santé Publique France Paca-Corse; 2019. Available from: https://www.santepubliquefrance.fr/regions/provence-alpes-cote-d-azur-e…

18. Sante Publique France - Agence regionale de sante - Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur. Le point épidémio Cellule régionale ARA Septembre 2019 Surveillance épidémiologique en région Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes: Santé publique France Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes; 2019. Available from: https://www.santepubliquefrance.fr/regions/provence-alpes-cote-d-azur-e…

19. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Rapid Risk Assessment - Sexual transmission of dengue in Spain Stockholm: ECDC; 2019 [updated 18 November 2019]. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/rapid-risk-assessment-s…   

20. Sante Publique France - Agence régionale de santé - Occitanie. Press release Autochthonous case of dengue in the Hérault deparment [in French, un cas autochtone de dengue confirmé dans l’Hérault], 31 July 2020. Montpellier: ARS Occitanie; 2020. Available from: http://www.herault.gouv.fr/content/download/34737/233309/file/2020_07_3…

21.  Lazzarini L, Barzon L, Foglia F, Manfrin V, Pacenti M, et al. First autochthonous dengue outbreak in Italy, August 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020;25(36):pii=20-01606

22. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Communicable disease threats report, 30 August - 5 Sep 2020, week 36. Stockholm: ECDC; 2020. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/communicable-disease-th… 

23. Sante Publique France - Agence régionale de santé - Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. Press release: Cas de dengue dans les Alpes-Maritimes. Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur: September 2020. Available from: https://www.paca.ars.sante.fr/cas-de-dengue-dans-les-alpes-maritimes 

24. Sante Publique France - Agence régionale de santé - Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. Press release: Un foyer de cas autochtones de dengue détecté dans les Alpes-Maritimes. Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur: September 2020. Available from: https://www.paca.ars.sante.fr/un-foyer-de-cas-autochtones-de-dengue-det

25. Sante Publique France - Agence régionale de santé - Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. Press release: Un cas autochtone de dengue dans le Var. Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur: September 2020. Available from: https://www.paca.ars.sante.fr/un-cas-autochtone-de-dengue-dans-le-var