Autochthonous transmission of dengue virus in mainland EU/EEA, 2010-present

Dengue is an Aedes-borne disease widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Globally, the virus is predominantly transmitted by the Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. While Ae. aegypti is so far not established in mainland EU, Ae. albopictus is established in the southern and central parts of mainland EU and is spreading. 

Dengue is not endemic in mainland EU/EEA and the vast majority of the cases are travellers infected outside of mainland EU/EEA.  When the environmental conditions are favourable, in areas where Ae. albopictus is established, viraemic travel-related cases may generate a local transmission of the virus, as demonstrated by the sporadic events of dengue virus transmission since 2010.

Year

Country, region, municipalities

Number of autochthonous cases

Probable period of circulation

Probable origin of the primary travel-related case

Virus

References

2010

Croatia, Korčula Island and the Pelješac peninsula

Two Croatian cases (and seven probable cases in same area with IgG and IgM positive)

One case among a German traveller. 

August–October

Unknown

DENV-1

[1-3]

2010

France, Alpes-Maritimes department, Nice

Two 

End August–September

Martinique

DENV-1

[4-6]

2013

France, Bouches–du-Rhône department, Venelles

One 

October

Guadeloupe

DENV-2*

[6,7]

2014

France, Var department, Toulon

One 

Early August

Unknown

DENV-1 (central America)

[6,8]

2014

France, Var department, Toulon

One 

Early September

Unknown

DENV-2 (Asia)

[6,8]

2014

France, Bouches-du-Rhône department, Aubagne

Two 

Late August–September

Thailand

DENV-2 (Asia)

[6,8]

2015

France, Gard department, Nîmes

Eight 

July–September 

French Polynesia

DENV-1

[6,9,10]

2018

France, Alpes Maritimes department, Saint-Laurent-du-Var

Five

September–October

Unknown

DENV-2 (Asia)

[6,11]

2018

France, Hérault department, Clapiers

Two

September–August 

Unknown

DENV-1 (central America)

[6,11]

2018

France, Gard department, Nîmes

One

October

French Polynesia

DENV-1 (Pacific)

[6]

2018

Spain, Murcia region or province of Cádiz

Three

August-September

Unknown

DENV-1

[11-13]

2018

Spain, Catalonia region

One

October

Unknown

DENV-1

[13]

2019

Spain, Catalonia region

One

September

Unknown

DENV-1

[14,15]

2019

France, Alpes-Maritimes department, Vallauris

Seven

Late August–September

Thailand

DENV-1

[15,16]

2019

France, Rhône department, Caluire-et-Cuire

Two

July

Cambodia

Unknown

[15,17]

2019

Spain, municipality of Madrid

One**

August-September

Cuba

DENV-1

[18]

2020

France, Hérault department, Cessenon-sur-Orb

One

Mid-July

Costa Rica

DENV-1

[19]

2020

France, Var department, la Croix Valmer

Three

End of July – August

Unknown

Unknown

 

[20-22]

2020

Italy, Veneto region, Montecchio Maggiore

Ten

August

Indonesia

DENV-1

[21, 22]

2020

France, Alpes-Maritime department, Nice

Five

End of August - early September 

Unknown

Unknown

[22-24]

2020

France, Gard department

One

End of August – Early September

Unknown

Unknown

[22,25]

2020

France, Alpes-Maritime department, Saint-Laurent-du-Var

One

End of August - September

Unknown

Unknown

[22]

2020

France, Hérault department, Montpellier or Gard department, Cabrières

One

End of September – Early October

Unknown

DENV-2

[22,26]

2021 France, Var department, Toulon One Early July Unknown Unknown [27]

DENV-1 and DENV-2: Dengue serotype 1 and 2, respectively; *: by seroneutralization; ** the case was infected through sexual transmission.

The table combines information published in official reports and in the scientific literature plus information that was provided by the public health institutes and/or the ministries of health in the affected Member States.   

 

References:

1. Gjenero-Margan I, Aleraj B, Krajcar D, Lesnikar V, Klobucar A, Pem-Novosel I, et al. Autochthonous dengue fever in Croatia, August-September 2010. Euro Surveill. 2011 Mar 03;16(9).

2. Kurolt IC, Betica-Radic L, Dakovic-Rode O, Franco L, Zelena H, Tenorio A, et al. Molecular characterization of dengue virus 1 from autochthonous dengue fever cases in Croatia. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013 Mar;19(3):E163-5.

3. Schmidt-Chanasit J, Haditsch M, Schoneberg I, Gunther S, Stark K, Frank C. Dengue virus infection in a traveller returning from Croatia to Germany. Euro Surveill. 2010 Oct 07;15(40).

4. Vega-Rua A, Zouache K, Caro V, Diancourt L, Delaunay P, Grandadam M, et al. High efficiency of temperate Aedes albopictus to transmit chikungunya and dengue viruses in the Southeast of France. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e59716.

5. La Ruche G, Souares Y, Armengaud A, Peloux-Petiot F, Delaunay P, Despres P, et al. First two autochthonous dengue virus infections in metropolitan France, September 2010. Euro Surveill. 2010 Sep 30;15(39):19676.

6.Franke F, Giron S, Cochet A, Jeannin C, Leparc-Goffart I, de Valk H, et al. Autochthonous chikungunya and dengue fever outbeak in mainland France, 2010-2018 [in French: Emergences de dengue et de chikungunya en France métropolitaine, 2010-2018]. Bull Epidémiol Hebd. 2019;n19-20; 9 Jul 2019.

7. Marchand E, Prat C, Jeannin C, Lafont E, Bergmann T, Flusin O, et al. Autochthonous case of dengue in France, October 2013. Euro Surveill. 2013 Dec 12;18(50):20661.

8. Giron S, Rizzi J, Leparc-Goffart I, Septfons A, Tine R, Cadiou B, et al. New occurrence of autochthonous cases of dengue fever in southeast France, August-September 2014 Bulletin épidémiologique hebdomadaire,. 2014 2015 Apr 28;13-14:217.

9. Succo T, Leparc-Goffart I, Ferre JB, Roiz D, Broche B, Maquart M, et al. Autochthonous dengue outbreak in Nimes, South of France, July to September 2015. Euro Surveill. 2016 May 26;21(21).

10. Succo T, Noel H, Nikolay B, Maquart M, Cochet A, Leparc-Goffart I, et al. Dengue serosurvey after a 2-month long outbreak in Nimes, France, 2015: was there more than met the eye? Euro Surveill. 2018 Jun;23(23).

11. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Rapid Risk Assessment: Local transmission of dengue fever in France and Spain, 22 October 2018. Stockholm: ECDC, 2018.

12. Monge S, Garcia-Ortuzar V, Lopez Hernandez B, Lopaz Perez MA, Delacour-Estrella S, Sanchez-Seco MP, et al. Characterization of the first autochthonous dengue outbreak in Spain (August-September 2018). Acta Trop. 2020 May;205:105402.

13.Ministerio de Sanidad Consumo y Bienestar Social. Primeros casos de dengue autóctono en España [in Spanish: First autochthonous cases of dengue in Spain}; November 2018 Madrid.

14. Pública AdS. L'Agència de Salut Pública confirma un altre cas de dengue autòcton a Catalunya [in Catalan: the public health agency confirms a new autochthonous case of dengue in Catalonia]; 18 September 2019  [27 October 2020]. Available from: https://salutpublica.gencat.cat/ca/detalls/Article/Dengue-autocton.

15. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Rapid risk assessment: Autochthonous cases of dengue in Spain and France, 1 October 2019. Stockholm: ECDC. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/rapid-risk-assessment-autochthonous-cases-dengue-spain-and-france.

16. Santé publique France, Agence regionale de sante Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur. Surveillance épidémiologique en Paca [in French: Epidemiological surveillance in PACA], 16 October 2019. Saint-Maurice: SPF. Available from: https://www.santepubliquefrance.fr/regions/provence-alpes-cote-d-azur-et-corse/documents/bulletin-regional/2019/surveillance-epidemiologique-en-paca.-point-au-16-octobre-2019.

17. Santé publique France, Agence regionale de santé Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes. Surveillance épidémiologique en région Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes [in French: Epidemiological surveillance in the region Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes]; 14 October to 20 October 2019. Saint-Maurice: SPF. Available from: https://www.auvergne-rhone-alpes.ars.sante.fr/system/files/2019-10/PE_ARA_2019_23_bronchio_grippe.pdf.

18. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Rapid Risk Assessment: Sexual transmission of dengue in Spain Stockholm: ECDC. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/rapid-risk-assessment-sexual-transmission-dengue-spain.

19. Santé publique France, Agence régionale de santé Occitanie. Press release: Autochthonous case of dengue in the Hérault deparment [in French: un cas autochtone de dengue confirmé dans l’Hérault]; 31 July 2020. Montpellier: ARS Occitanie. Available from: https://www.herault.gouv.fr/content/download/34737/233309/file/2020_07_31_CP-Dengue-Cessenon-sur-Orb-34_V2-dm.pdf.

20. Santé publique France, Agence régionale de santé Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. Press release: Un cas autochtone de dengue dans le Var [in French: Autochthonous case of dengue in Var]; 8 September 2020. ARS PACA. Available from: https://www.paca.ars.sante.fr/un-cas-autochtone-de-dengue-dans-le-var.

21. Vermeulen TD, Reimerink J, Reusken C, Giron S, de Vries PJ. Autochthonous dengue in two Dutch tourists visiting Departement Var, southern France, July 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020 Oct;25(39).

22. Santé publique France. Chikungunya, dengue et zika - Données de la surveillance renforcée en France métropolitaine en 2020 [in French: Chikungunya, dengue and zika - Data from the enhanced surveillance in metropolitan France in 2020]; 26 October 2020 Saint-Maurice: SPF;  [Accessed on 27 October 2020]. Available from: https://www.santepubliquefrance.fr/maladies-et-traumatismes/maladies-a-transmission-vectorielle/chikungunya/articles/donnees-en-france-metropolitaine/chikungunya-dengue-et-zika-donnees-de-la-surveillance-renforcee-en-france-metropolitaine-en-2020.

23. Santé publique France, Agence régionale de santé Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. Press release: Cinq cas autochtones de dengue détectés à Nice [in French: Five autochthonous cases of dengue detected in Nice]; 18 September 2020. ARS PACA. Available from: https://www.paca.ars.sante.fr/cinq-cas-autochtones-de-dengue-detectes-nice.

24. Santé publique France, Agence régionale de santé Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. Press release: Cas de dengue dans les Alpes-Maritimes [in French: Case of dengue in Alpes-Maritimes]; 4 September 2020. ARS PACA. Available from: https://www.paca.ars.sante.fr/cas-de-dengue-dans-les-alpes-maritimes.

25. Santé publique France, Agence régionale de santé Occitanie. Press release: Un probable cas autochtone de dengue dans le Gard [in French: A probable case of dengue in Gard], 18 September 2020. Montpellier: ARS Occitanie; Available from: https://www.occitanie.ars.sante.fr/system/files/2020-09/2020_10_18_CP%20Dengue%20Gard.pdf.

26. Santé publique France, Agence régional de santé Occitanie. Un cas autochtone fortement suspecté de dengue dans le Gard et l’Hérault [in French: a suspected autochthonous case of dengue in Gard and Hérault]; 14 October 2020. Montpellier: ARS Occitanie. Available from: https://www.occitanie.ars.sante.fr/system/files/2020-10/2020_10_14_CP%20Dengue%20Gard_Herault.pdf.

27. Santé publique France, Agence régionale de santé Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. Press release: Var : démoustication et surveillance renforcée après la détection d’un cas autochtone de dengue [in French: Var: Mosquito control and surveillance after detection of an autochthonous case of dengue]; 29 July 2021. ARS PACA. Available from: https://www.paca.ars.sante.fr/var-demoustication-et-surveillance-renforcee-apres-la-detection-dun-cas-autochtone-de-dengue?fbclid=IwAR3Kh8aOHc6dvmNAyvCbBdQQafw1nSVjYlnHqb3p5DZXEBUMUy31kn_efrE.