Autochthonous transmission of dengue virus in mainland EU/EEA, 2010-present

Dengue is an Aedes-borne disease widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Globally, the virus is predominantly transmitted by the Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. While Ae. aegypti is so far not established in mainland EU, Ae. albopictus is established in the southern and central parts of mainland EU and is spreading. 

Dengue is not endemic in mainland EU/EEA and the vast majority of the cases are travellers infected outside of mainland EU/EEA.  When the environmental conditions are favourable, in areas where Ae. albopictus is established, viraemic travel-related cases may generate a local transmission of the virus, as demonstrated by the sporadic events of dengue virus transmission since 2010.

Year

Country

Region, municipalities

Number of autochthonous cases

Probable period of virus circulation

Probable origin of the virus

Virus serotype

 

Mode of transmission

References

2010

Croatia

Korčula Island and the Pelješac peninsula

10

August–October

Unknown

DENV-1

Vector-borne transmission

[1-3]

2010

France

Alpes-Maritimes department, Nice

2

August–September

Martinique

DENV-1

Vector-borne transmission

[4-6]

2013

France

Bouches–du-Rhône department, Venelles

1

September-October

Guadeloupe

DENV-2

Vector-borne transmission

[6,7]

2014

France

Var department, Toulon

1

July-August

Unknown

DENV-1 (central America)

Vector-borne transmission

[6,8]

2014

France

Var department, Toulon

1

August-September

Unknown

DENV-2 (Asia)

Vector-borne transmission

[6,8]

2014

France

Bouches-du-Rhône department, Aubagne

2

August–September

Thailand

DENV-2 (Asia)

Vector-borne transmission

[6,8]

2015

France

Gard department, Nîmes

8

July–September 

French Polynesia

DENV-1

Vector-borne transmission

[6,9,10]

2018

France

Alpes Maritimes department, Saint-Laurent-du-Var

5

September–October

Unknown

DENV-2 (Asia)

Vector-borne transmission

[6,11]

2018

France

Hérault department, Clapiers

2

September–October 

Unknown

DENV-1 (central America)

Vector-borne transmission

[6,11]

2018

France

Gard department, Nîmes

1

September–October

French Polynesia

DENV-1 (Pacific)

Vector-borne transmission

[6]

2018

Spain

Murcia region or province of Cádiz

5

August-September

Unknown

DENV-1

Vector-borne transmission

[11-13]

2018

Spain

Catalonia region

1

October

Unknown

DENV-1

Vector-borne transmission

[13]

2019

Spain

Catalonia region

1

September

Unknown

DENV-1

Vector-borne transmission

[14,15]

2019

France

Alpes-Maritimes department, Vallauris

7

August-September

Thailand

DENV-1

Vector-borne transmission

[15,16]

2019

France

Rhône department, Caluire-et-Cuire

2

July

Cambodia

Unknown

Vector-borne transmission

[15,17]

2019

Germany

Not applicable

1

May

Not applicable

Unknown

Needle-related injury

[18]

2019

Spain

Municipality of Madrid

1

August-September

Cuba

DENV-1

Sexual transmission

[19]

2020

France

Hérault department, Cessenon-sur-Orb

1

July

Costa Rica

DENV-1

Vector-borne transmission

[20]

2020

France

Var department, la Croix Valmer

3

July-August

Unknown

Unknown

Vector-borne transmission

[21,22]

2020

Italy

Veneto region, Montecchio Maggiore

10

August

Indonesia

DENV-1

Vector-borne transmission

[23]

2020

France

Alpes-Maritime department, Nice

5

August-September 

Réunion

DENV-2

Vector-borne transmission

[22]

2020

France

Gard department,  Saint-Jean-de-Valériscle

1

August

Guadeloupe

Unknown

Vector-borne transmission

[22]

2020

France

Alpes-Maritime department, Saint-Laurent-du-Var

2

September-October

Unknown

DENV-1

Vector-borne transmission

[22]

2020

France

Hérault department, Montpellier or Gard department, Cabrières

1

August-September

Unknown

Unknown

Vector-borne transmission

[22]

2021

France

Var department, Toulon

1

July

 

Unknown

Unknown

Vector-borne transmission

[24]

2022

France

Pyrénées-Orientales department, Perpignan

1

June

Unknown

DENV-3

Vector-borne transmission

[25]

2022

France

Hautes-Pyrénées department, Andrest and Rabastens

4

July-August

Unknown

Unknown

Vector-borne transmission

[25]

2022

France

Haute-Garonne, Salvetat saint Gilles

4

August

Unknown

Unknown

Vector-borne transmission

[25]

2022

France

Var department, Fayence

7

June-July

Unknown

Unknown

Vector-borne transmission

[25]

2022

France

Alpes-Maritime department, Saint Jeannet, Gattières, and Gaude

31

August-September

Unknown

Unknown

Vector-borne transmission

[25]

DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-3: Dengue virus serotype 1, 2 and 3, respectively.

The table combines information published in official reports and in the scientific literature plus information that was provided by the public health institutes and/or the ministries of health in the affected Member States.

References

  1. Gjenero-Margan I, Aleraj B, Krajcar D, Lesnikar V, Klobucar A, Pem-Novosel I, et al. Autochthonous dengue fever in Croatia, August-September 2010. Euro Surveill. 2011 Mar 03;16(9) Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21392489
  2. Kurolt IC, Betica-Radic L, Dakovic-Rode O, Franco L, Zelena H, Tenorio A, et al. Molecular characterization of dengue virus 1 from autochthonous dengue fever cases in Croatia. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013 Mar;19(3):E163-5. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23279586
  3. Schmidt-Chanasit J, Haditsch M, Schoneberg I, Gunther S, Stark K, Frank C. Dengue virus infection in a traveller returning from Croatia to Germany. Euro Surveill. 2010 Oct 07;15(40) Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20946759
  4. Vega-Rua A, Zouache K, Caro V, Diancourt L, Delaunay P, Grandadam M, et al. High efficiency of temperate Aedes albopictus to transmit chikungunya and dengue viruses in the Southeast of France. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e59716. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23527259
  5. La Ruche G, Souares Y, Armengaud A, Peloux-Petiot F, Delaunay P, Despres P, et al. First two autochthonous dengue virus infections in metropolitan France, September 2010. Euro Surveill. 2010 Sep 30;15(39):19676. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20929659
  6. Franke F, Giron S, Cochet A, Jeannin C, Leparc-Goffart I, de Valk H, et al. Autochthonous chikungunya and dengue fever outbeak in mainland France, 2010-2018 [in French: Emergences de dengue et de chikungunya en France métropolitaine, 2010-2018]. Bull Epidémiol Hebd. 2019;19-20; 9 Jul 2019 Available at: http://beh.santepubliquefrance.fr/beh/2019/19-20/pdf/2019_19-20_2.pdf
  7. Marchand E, Prat C, Jeannin C, Lafont E, Bergmann T, Flusin O, et al. Autochthonous case of dengue in France, October 2013. Euro Surveill. 2013 Dec 12;18(50):20661. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24342514
  8. Giron S, Rizzi J, Leparc-Goffart I, Septfons A, Tine R, Cadiou B, et al. New occurrence of autochthonous cases of dengue fever in southeast France, August-September 2014. Bull Epidémiol Hebd. 2014;13-14:217. Available at: http://invs.santepubliquefrance.fr/beh/2015/13-14/pdf/2015_13-14_3.pdf
  9. Succo T, Leparc-Goffart I, Ferre JB, Roiz D, Broche B, Maquart M, et al. Autochthonous dengue outbreak in Nimes, South of France, July to September 2015. Euro Surveill. 2016 May 26;21(21) Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27254729
  10. Succo T, Noel H, Nikolay B, Maquart M, Cochet A, Leparc-Goffart I, et al. Dengue serosurvey after a 2-month long outbreak in Nimes, France, 2015: was there more than met the eye? Euro Surveill. 2018 Jun;23(23) Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29897042
  11. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Rapid Risk Assessment: Local transmission of dengue fever in France and Spain, 22 October 2018. Stockholm: ECDC, 2018
  12. Monge S, Garcia-Ortuzar V, Lopez Hernandez B, Lopaz Perez MA, Delacour-Estrella S, Sanchez-Seco MP, et al. Characterization of the first autochthonous dengue outbreak in Spain (August-September 2018). Acta Trop. 2020 May;205:105402. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32088276
  13. Centro de Coordinación de Alertas y Emergencias Sanitarias. Primeros casos de dengue autóctono en España [in Spanish: First autochthonous cases of dengue in Spain}; November 2018 Madrid: Ministerio de Sanidad, Consumo y Bienestar Social.,
  14. Agència de Salut Pública. L'Agència de Salut Pública confirma un altre cas de dengue autòcton a Catalunya [in Catalan: the public health agency confirms a new autochthonous case of dengue in Catalonia]; 18 September 2019. Barcelona: Agència de Salut Pública,. Available at: https://salutpublica.gencat.cat/ca/detalls/Article/Dengue-autocton
  15. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Rapid risk assessment: Autochthonous cases of dengue in Spain and France, 1 October 2019. Stockholm: ECDC. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/rapid-risk-assessment-autochthonous-cases-dengue-spain-and-france,
  16. Santé publique France (SpF), Agence regionale de santé Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur (ARS PACA). Surveillance épidémiologique en PACA. 16 October 2019. Saint-Maurice: SpF,
  17. Santé publique France, Agence regionale de santé Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes. Surveillance épidémiologique en région Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes. 14 October to 20 October 2019. Saint-Maurice: SpF. Available at: https://www.auvergne-rhone-alpes.ars.sante.fr/system/files/2019-10/PE_ARA_2019_23_bronchio_grippe.pdf
  18. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Dengue. In: Annual epidemiological report for 2019. Stockholm: ECDC, 2021
  19. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Rapid Risk Assessment: Sexual transmission of dengue in Spain Stockholm: ECDC. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/rapid-risk-assessment-sexual-transmission-dengue-spain,
  20. Santé publique France, Agence régionale de santé Occitanie. Un cas autochtone de dengue confirmé dans l’Hérault. 31 July 2020. Montpellier: ARS Occitanie. Available at: https://www.herault.gouv.fr/content/download/34737/233309/file/2020_07_31_CP-Dengue-Cessenon-sur-Orb-34_V2-dm.pdf
  21. Vermeulen TD, Reimerink J, Reusken C, Giron S, de Vries PJ. Autochthonous dengue in two Dutch tourists visiting Departement Var, southern France, July 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020 Oct;25(39) Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33006305
  22. Santé publique France. Chikungunya, dengue et zika - Données de la surveillance renforcée en France métropolitaine en 2020. Saint-Maurice: SPF; 2020. Available at: https://www.santepubliquefrance.fr/maladies-et-traumatismes/maladies-a-transmission-vectorielle/chikungunya/articles/donnees-en-france-metropolitaine/chikungunya-dengue-et-zika-donnees-de-la-surveillance-renforcee-en-france-metropolitaine-en-2020
  23. Lazzarini L, Barzon L, Foglia F, Manfrin V, Pacenti M, Pavan G, et al. First autochthonous dengue outbreak in Italy, August 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020 Sep;25(36) Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32914745
  24. Santé publique France, Agence régionale de santé Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (ARS PACA). Démoustication et surveillance renforcée après la détection d’un cas autochtone de dengue. 29 July 2021. Marseille: ARS PACA.
  25. Santé publique France. Chikungunya, dengue et zika - Données de la surveillance renforcée en France métropolitaine en 2022. Saint-Maurice: SPF; 2022. Available at: https://www.santepubliquefrance.fr/maladies-et-traumatismes/maladies-a-transmission-vectorielle/chikungunya/articles/donnees-en-france-metropolitaine/chikungunya-dengue-et-zika-donnees-de-la-surveillance-renforcee-en-france-metropolitaine-en-2022