Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever

Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers are systemic diseases caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi, respectively. Humans are the only reservoir for Salmonella typhi (which is the most serious), whereas Salmonella paratyphi also has animal reservoirs. Humans can carry the bacteria in the gut for very long times (chronic carriers), and transmit the bacteria to other persons (either directly or via food or water contamination).

After 1-2 weeks incubation period, a disease characterised by high fever, malaise, cough, rash and enlarged spleen develops. Diarrhoea may be present at some stage. When Salmonella typhi is the cause, intestinal perforation and haemorrhage may occur. Salmonella typhi blood stream infection can also cause infection in all organs. Antibiotic therapy has radically changed the prognosis of typhoid, which, untreated, has a 10% death rate. Preventive measures include good personal and food hygiene. An effective vaccine is also available.

Latest outputs

Publication

Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers - Annual Epidemiological Report for 2017

Surveillance report -

Publication

Communicable disease threats report, 6-12 October 2019, week 41

Publication -

News

Increase of XDR Typhoid fever in travellers returning from Pakistan

Epidemiological update -

Publication

Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers - Annual Epidemiological Report for 2016

Surveillance report -

Publication

Typhoid and paratyphoid fever - Annual Epidemiological Report for 2015

Surveillance report -

Peer-Reviewed Publication

Unusual increase in reported cases of Paratyphoid A fever among travellers returning from Cambodia, January to September 2013

Jan 2013

Peer-Reviewed Publication

Reducing salmonella in European egg-laying hens: EU targets now set.

Aug 2006

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Disease networks

European Food- and Waterborne Diseases and Zoonoses Network (FWD-Net)