Leishmaniasis is a tropical/sub-tropical disease, spread by the bite of infected sandflies. There are several different forms of leishmaniasis in people: cutaneous leishmaniasis causes skin sores, visceral leishmaniasis causes systemic disease. Without treatment, most patients with the visceral disease will die and those with diffuse cutaneous disease can suffer long infections associated with secondary life-threatening infections.
Phlebotomine sand flies - Factsheet for experts
A number of sand fly species are present in Europe and in recent years, their range has increased. They are vectors of human and canine leishmaniasis, and sand fly fevers caused by phleboviruses.