Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera of serogroups O1 or O139. Humans are the only relevant reservoir, even though Vibrios can survive for a long time in coastal waters contaminated by human excreta.
Consumption of contaminated water and food, especially seafood eaten under-cooked, results in infection. After a short incubation period of less than five days, the typical symptoms might develop, characterised by vomiting and watery diarrhoea. In most cases, though, symptoms are mild or absent and infected individuals become carriers with no symptoms.
With timely treatment (fluid replacement and antibiotics), less than 1% of patients with symptoms die. The disease has not been endemic in Europe for a long time, and thanks to high hygiene standards the potential for imported cases to generate further ones is low.
Communication toolkit on gastrointestinal diseases: How to support infection prevention in schools
Threats and outbreaks
Epidemiological updates, risk assessments, Communicable Disease Threat reports etc.
Mapping the burden of cholera in sub-Saharan Africa and implications for control: an analysis of data across geographical scales
Unexplored Opportunities: Use of Climate- and Weather-Driven Early Warning Systems to Reduce the Burden of Infectious Diseases
The 2018 report of the Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: shaping the health of nations for centuries to come