West Nile virus infection
West Nile virus (WNV) infection is a mosquito-borne zoonosis that is endemo-epidemic in Europe. The disease affects countries in southern, eastern and western Europe. The virus is transmitted among birds via the bite of infected mosquitoes and incidentally humans and other mammals may become infected. About 80% of WNV infections in humans are asymptomatic. West Nile fever (WNF) is the most common clinical presentation. The elderly and immunocompromised persons are at higher risk of developing West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND). No specific prophylaxis or treatment exist against the disease in humans.