Response Measures Database (RMD)

Tools for public health

The Response Measures Database (RMD) is an archive of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) introduced by 30 countries in the EU/EEA from 1 January 2020 to 30 September 2022 in response to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. It was a joint effort by ECDC and the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission.

The data on response measures has several limitations:

  • There is substantial heterogeneity in physical distancing policies and their implementation between countries. For instance, the level of enforcement of measures may vary between countries and there may be specific rules and exceptions to the measures, making interpretation of the data challenging.
  • The measures displayed in these figures are measures reported at national level and it should be noted that due to the evolution of the outbreak in certain regions, regional or local measures often preceded national ones. The exact dates of introduction were often available from official sources but delays in their implementation may have occurred.
  • Availability of public data from official government sources varies among countries. For some countries, data are no longer available on official websites concerning measures that are no longer in force, which may result in the data for more recent measures being more complete.

Contact if you need more information on the response measures or on the strengths and limitations of the archive.

Access the archive of the national public response measures presented in the Weekly COVID-19 Country Overview report until September 2022

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