Epidemiological situation of tick-borne encephalitis in the European Union and European Free Trade Association countries
The report summarises existing information on the occurrence of TBE to obtain a better understanding of the current magnitude of TBE in the European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries. The specific objectives are to characterise the different reporting systems for TBE in EU/EFTA countries; to identify and assess the current epidemiological situation for TBE; identify key risk areas for the disease and provide ECDC with data into its study on burden of disease. The report is a first effort to collect existing data on TBE in EU/EFTA countries. The data, covering the period 2000–2010, were collected from different sources.
ECDC publishes today a report on the epidemiological situation of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and TBE surveillance systems in EU and EFTA. It has epidemiological data for the period 2000 – 2010, for 20 out of 30 EU/EFTA countries, including ‘country profiles’ for each of the countries that implemented TBE surveillance.
The report identifies key risk areas for the disease and contains recommendations for improving the TBE surveillance and prevention in Europe.
The main risk areas and groups for TBE are:
- Baltic and Nordic countries and central and eastern Europe - extending west as far as Switzerland and Alsace, France, and southern Europe up to northern Italy and the Balkans
- Males aged 40-–60 years, indicating those working outdoors may be at greater risk
- June to October, a seasonal peak over the summer.
Surveillance systems for TBE are implemented in the majority of EU/EFTA countries (20 out of 30). However, significant differences exist among them, making it difficult to compare national data at EU level. The ECDC’s report suggests that national and regional public health authorities improve and harmonise the TBE surveillance systems. It also recommends particular measures, such as the implementation of a standard EU case definition and routine collection of surveillance data from EU countries.
TBE has been recently added to the list of notifiable diseases within the EU and a standard EU case definition for TBE has been agreed and approved and will be published soon.
To foster TBE prevention in Europe, the report proposes developing vaccination recommendations for residents and travellers to affected areas. More precise information about areas at potential risk and the best way to avoid tick bites, as well as vaccination availability for residents and travellers to affected areas are also needed.
The report is the first attempt to systematically collect and compile existing surveillance data on TBE in EU/EFTA countries. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a viral tick-borne infectious disease that occurs in endemic areas across large regions of Europe. Over the last decades, the number of TBE cases in Europe increased and affected areas spread.
TBE Key risk areas: TBE average annual incidence rate per 100 000 inhabitants in the EU/EFTA at lower administrative level NUTS 2 (Italy) or NUTS 3
The key risk areas for TBE are located in central and eastern Europe and the Baltic and Nordic countries.
TBE Key risk groups: Number of TBE cases, regardless of the applied case definition, by age group and gender reported in 16 EU/EFTA countries, 2000–2010 (n= 22 378)
In Europe, TBE cases occurred more commonly among men than women and the number of reported cases increased with age.
TBE Cases by year: Number of TBE cases, regardless of the applied case definition, by year reported in 16 EU/EFTA countries, 2000–2010 (n= 29 381)
During the 2000–2010 period, the overall number of reported TBE cases (all case definitions combined) stayed relatively stable, with notable increases in 2003, 2006 and 2009–2010. The Czech Republic reported 25% of all reported cases, Lithuania 15%, Latvia and Germany 11% each and Slovenia 10%.
TBE Seasonality: Number of TBE cases, regardless of the applied case definition, by month of onset reported in nine EU/EFTA countries, 2000–2010 (n= 7 083)
The majority of cases reported during 2000–2010 showed disease onset between July and October.
Community engagement and institutional collaboration in Iceland during a norovirus outbreak at an outdoor/scout centre (10–15 August 2017)
19 Nov 2019 - This country visit report presents the findings of a case study into an outbreak of norovirus in Iceland that occurred during the period 10–15 August 2017.
Community engagement and institutional collaboration during outbreaks of Shiga toxin/verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in Ireland
19 Nov 2019 - This country visit report presents the findings of a case study into outbreaks of Shiga toxin/verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC/VTEC) at childcare facilities in Ireland, conducted in November 2018.
A spatial modelling method for vector surveillance
14 Nov 2019 - Vector borne diseases are a specific group of infectious diseases that are a (re-)emerging threat to Europe. One important aspect of preparedness for vector borne diseases is the surveillance of the introduction, establishment and spread of the main disease vectors. ECDC regularly publishes updated vector distribution maps at the NUTS3 level. This document describes a methodology to estimate the vector distribution status for those NUTS3 units for which observations are not yet available . These estimates are produced with spatial modelling techniques, using the currently available distributions to calibrate the modelling process. This document provides an overview of gap analysis procedures, sets out the full methodology, and also provide s details of which methodological components were used with each output provided.