Rapid risk assessment: Human infection with a novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus, China - Third update
This updated risk assessment summarises all available information on the novel avian influenza A(H7N9) and assesses the situation as of 27 January 2014, focusing on new developments since the ECDC rapid risk assessments of 3 April 2013, 12 April 2013 and 8 May 2013. The document assesses the risk associated with the outbreak of avian influenza in China to public health in the EU/EEA and attempts to anticipate future developments (disease scenarios, availability of vaccination, human-to-human transmission).
In recent weeks there has been a notable increase in the number of cases of avian influenza A(H7N9) being detected and reported in China. As of 27 January 2014, 251 cases of human infection with influenza A(H7N9) have been reported in total. Most cases have developed severe respiratory disease. Fifty-six patients have died, although final outcomes are not routinely reported after the initial notification.
As this has followed several months where only sporadic cases have been reported, 116 since October from nine Chinese provinces/municipalities and Taiwan, ECDC has updated its Rapid Risk Assessment on human infections of influenza A(H7N9) virus due to this increased number of cases.
While occasional human-to-human transmission in clusters of reported cases cannot be ruled out there is no indication of sustained human-to-human transmission.
The recent increase in cases may indicate an enlargement of the virus reservoir, an increase in the number of exposed individuals, enhanced transmissibility of the virus, a seasonal transmission pattern or a combination of these factors.
The most plausible underlying scenario is of a zoonotic avian influenza that is circulating in poultry in parts of south-eastern China. The severe nature of the disease and the genetic features of the virus present a threat to humans because of the human pandemic potential. The persistence of this virus in poultry represents a significant long-term threat either as a zoonosis or perhaps a pandemic virus. Both eventualities should be prepared for.
The updated Rapid Risk Assessment also contains updated information on A(H7N9) virology and vaccine development.
Influenza A(H7N9) virus in China - implications for public health - 7th update, 3 July 2017
3 Jul 2017 - Since the notification of a novel reassortant influenza A(H7N9) virus on 31 March 2013, 1 548 laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus have been reported.
Genetic evolution of influenza A(H7N9) virus in China - implications for public health. Sixth update, 9 March 2017
10 Mar 2017 - This rapid risk assessment builds on the fifth update of the ECDC rapid risk assessments on avian influenza published on 27 January 2017  and on the recent public health development dated 24 February 2017.
Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus - 5th update, 27 January 2017
27 Jan 2017 - Fifth update of the risk assessment on human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus, summarising the epidemiological and virological information on the disease in China and Canada, and assessing the risk to public health in the EU/EEA.