EU Diphtheria Case Definition: Position Paper, 2002
Good surveillance is fundamental to every vaccination programme. The responsibility of public health authorities is to demonstrate that these programmes are effective, particularly in view of the susceptibility to diphtheria amongst adult populations in Europe and the demonstrated potential for diphtheria to re-emerge rapidly if vaccination coverage or efficacy falls1. Maintaining confidence by demonstrating safety and effectiveness is critical. However, the quality of diphtheria surveillance varies greatly between countries both at laboratory and public health levels, and standards need to be agreed and set, and methodologies harmonised across Europe. Furthermore, the standards need to be higher than for other diseases due to specific programmatic targets to demonstrate the absence of disease or to ascertain reliably low levels of disease incidence. In this way, vaccine preventable disease surveillance in high coverage countries, and diphtheria surveillance specifically, has particular requirements which may differ from some other European surveillance projects that have focused on high incidence diseases.
Partial COVID-19 vaccination, vaccination following SARS-CoV-2 infection and heterologous vaccination schedule: summary of evidence
22 Jul 2021 - This document provides a review of evidence on three topics of interest (effectiveness of partial vaccination, immunogenicity and effectiveness of vaccination for previously infected individuals and safety and immunogenicity of heterologous schedules) to inform ongoing decision-making in relation to national vaccination policies and strategies in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries.
COVID-19 in children and the role of school settings in transmission - second update
8 Jul 2021 - The aim of this document is to provide an update on the knowledge surrounding the role of children in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and the role of schools in the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing in particular on the experience in EU/EEA countries since the beginning of the pandemic. This document also addresses transmission to and from staff in school settings, school-related mitigation measures including risk communication, testing, contact tracing, and the effectiveness and impacts of school closures.