ECDC risk assessment: 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic (Update 12 June 2009)
A new influenza A virus was identified by the United States CDC in April this year in samples from two Californian children and retrospectively in cases in Mexico (CDC 2009a, Fraser 2009, CDC 2009b). The new virus and the disease it caused were initially called ‘swine flu’. The basic genetic structure of the virus has been described and this information is available through publicly accessible websites (Trifonov 2009, Nava 2009). The virus has a number of genetic elements from two different types of swine influenza, but also elements originally from avian and human influenzas that were incorporated into other swine influenza viruses (Nava 2009). However, it is unclear if the specific reassortment leading to the new virus took place in pigs or humans.
Rapid risk assessment: Cases of Lassa fever in the Netherlands ex Sierra Leone
29 Nov 2019 - On 20 and 24 November 2019, respectively, the Dutch public health authorities confirmed two imported cases of Lassa fever from Sierra Leone. Both were Dutch healthcare workers who worked in a rural hospital in Sierra Leone.
Rapid outbreak assessment: Multi-country outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes sequence type 6 infections linked to ready-to-eat meat products
26 Nov 2019 - Twenty-one cases of Listeria monocytogenes IVb sequence type ST 6 infections have been reported from the Netherlands (19 cases) and Belgium (two cases). This outbreak was identified using whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis.
Rapid risk assessment - Sexual transmission of dengue in Spain
18 Nov 2019 - Spanish authorities have reported the likely sexual transmission of dengue between two men. One of the men travelled to Cuba and the Dominican Republic (both countries where dengue is endemic) and returned to Spain on 4 September 2019.