Regional workshop on COVID-19 recovery in Tunisia


The workshop organised by ECDC took place from 7 - 9 March in Tunis, upon invitation of the Tunisian National Observatory of New and Emerging Diseases (NONED).

Regional workshop on COVID-19 recovery in Tunisia

It gathered 25 professionals working for institutes of public health or ministries of health of Tunisia, Morocco, Egypt and Libya who were involved in the response to the COVID-19 pandemic. One representative of Africa CDC also attended the workshop. The workshop aimed to reflect on the lessons from Covid-19 and consider how they may be captured in action plans for subsequent implementation.

The workshop was facilitated by five experts from the ECDC Emergency Preparedness and Response Section, supported by an ECDC event assistant and assisted by one invited expert and by the Director Gneral of the National Observatory of New and Emerging Diseases (NONED). 

The events of the COVID-19 pandemic placed an enormous strain on public health sectors throughout Europe and other regions. Several partner countries of the Southern Neighbourhood conducted after-action reviews (AAR) and in-action reviews (IAR) during and after the pandemic to evaluate their practices and adapt them as needed. Such appraisals allow for identifying recommendations for improving public health emergency plans. 

The workshop provided participants with the knowledge, skills and support to develop best practice plans on health security, based on the outcomes of AARs and IARs. 

The specific objectives of the workshop were to:

  • Review the process of conducting IARs and AARs based on country experiences 
  • Share examples from countries' own experiences of good practice in identifying and implementing lessons learnt to improve preparedness steps. 
  • Consider and practice the steps necessary to take lessons identified and embed them into future plans (lessons learnt)  
  • Explore the current practice of developing national action plans on health security  

After-action and in-action reviews

After-action reviews are structured, qualitative reviews of the actions taken during a response to a public health event to identify best practices, gaps and lessons learned. 

Similar to after-action reviews, in-action reviews seek to identify best practices and lessons learned, but they seek to apply these insights in a tighter timescale to improve the outcome of an ongoing response.


  After-action reviews In-action reviews

Seeks to address in detail:

  • What happened?
  • Why did it happen?
  • What can be learned (from good practices, gaps, and challenges)? 
  • What should change?
  • Have changes taken place?

Seeks to address in detail:

  • What is happening?
  • What emerging issues are on the horizon? 
  • What can be learned (from good practices, gaps, and challenges)?
  • What should change? 
Scope Can address all aspects of emergency response, or can focus on specific areas Best suited to focus on 1−2 specific response areas



International collaboration and networking with national and international public health authorities across EU/EEA neighbouring regions, and globally, strengthen preparedness and response activities and provides a unique opportunity to act effectively on potential cross-border threats. Under the EU Initiative on Health Security (EU-IHS), ECDC supports capacity building in the EU`s Neighbourhood regions.