Prevention and control measures for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever
Prevention and control of CCHF infection is achieved by avoiding or minimising exposure to infected ticks by using tick repellents. Wearing protective clothing and early and correct removal of ticks are recommended. Since nosocomial cases of CCHF are quite common and often result in high mortality, strict universal precautions, including barrier nursing, should be taken with hospitalised cases, as with other haemorrhagic fevers. A vaccine derived from inactivated mouse brain is used in Bulgaria, but is not widely available, and efficiency and safety have to be re-evaluated, as well as specific human immunoglobulin used for post-exposure prophylaxis. In endemic areas, a measure of tick control has been achieved by environmental sanitation of underbrush habitats. Acaricides may be useful on domestic animals to control CCHF virus-infected ticks if used 10–14 days prior to slaughter or to export of animals from enzootic regions.