Rapid Risk Assessment: Outbreak of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 in Ukraine, 4 September 2015
This risk assessment was triggered by two cases of paralytic poliomyelitis in children, caused by circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) in Ukraine during June and July 2015. The outbreak of poliomyelitis in Ukraine is not unexpected, given the low polio vaccination uptake and coverage. It represents a threat to public health in Ukraine and the EU/EEA Member States and there is an urgent need to assess the risk of further spread within Ukraine and international spread from Ukraine.
Two cases of paralytic poliomyelitis caused by circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) were confirmed in Ukraine on 28 August 2015. The genetic similarity between the isolates indicates active transmission of cVDPV1. Both cases are from the Zakarpatskaya oblast [region], in south-western Ukraine, bordering Romania, Hungary, Slovakia and Poland.
There is a risk that cVDPV will be imported and transmitted in the EU via a recently infected person shedding the virus and this is assessed in a new ECDC rapid risk assessment. The highest risk of importation and onward transmission is likely to exist in the border areas with Ukraine, particularly in areas where under-vaccinated populations are concentrated on both sides of the border and where there is a high volume of border crossings in both directions.
However, the risk that importation of cVDPV from Ukraine to the EU/EEA would result in a case of paralytic poliomyelitis is low, given the high polio vaccination uptake in EU/EEA Member States.
Member States are also encouraged to review the options proposed by ECDC in the 2013 rapid risk assessment Wild polio virus 1 transmission in Israel – what is the risk to the EU/EEA. Public health authorities, travel medicine clinics and other healthcare providers should advise EU residents who plan to visit Ukraine of the need to be up-to-date with their polio vaccinations.
Rapid risk assessment: Public health risks related to communicable diseases during the hajj 2019, Saudi Arabia, 9–14 August 2019
2 Jul 2019 - In 2019, the hajj will take place between 9 and 14 August. The risk for EU/EEA citizens to become infected with communicable diseases during the 2019 hajj is considered low, thanks to the vaccination requirements for travelling to Makkah (Mecca) and the Saudi Arabian preparedness plans that address the management of health hazards during and after hajj.
Rapid risk assessment: International spread of wild-type poliovirus in 2014 declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern under the International Health Regulations (IHR) – May 2014
3 Jun 2014 - This rapid risk assessment examines the implications of the temporary recommendations for EU Member States and assesses whether the developments leading to the declaration of a PHEIC represent an increased risk of WPV importation to Member States of the European Union.
Risk of introduction and transmission of wild-type poliovirus in EU/EEA countries following events in Israel and Syria – updated risk assessment (9 December 2013)
10 Dec 2013 - The confirmed circulation of wild-type poliovirus (WPV) in Israel and the outbreak of poliomyelitis in Syria mean that there is a high risk the disease will be reintroduced into the EU/EEA.