Rapid risk assessment: Human infection with avian influenza A(H5N1) virus, Egypt - 1st update, 13 March 2015
Human cases and fatalities due to influenza A(H5N1) virus continue to increase in Egypt, with cases from the country now accounting for the highest number of human cases reported worldwide.
Continuous increase of virus circulation in backyard poultry and exposure to infected poultry are most probably contributing to the increase in human cases. Whenever avian influenza viruses circulate in poultry, sporadic infections and small clusters of human cases are possible in people exposed to infected poultry or contaminated environments.
Although Egypt has reported an increased number of animal-to-human infections over the past few months, the influenza A(H5) viruses do not appear to transmit easily among people, and no sustained human-to-human transmission has been observed. As such, the risk of these viruses spreading in the community remains low.
Increased human infectivity of the circulating virus and the protection conferred by the poultry vaccines currently in use should be further investigated.
The current assessment remains that there is no risk for the general public in the EU. Travellers from the EU should avoid direct contact with poultry or poultry products when travelling to Egypt.
There is a low but ongoing and continuous risk of the virus being introduced and cases being imported into Europe and therefore both veterinary and public health authorities should maintain preparedness.
Threat Assessment Brief: Eurasian avian-like A(H1N1) swine influenza viruses
13 Jul 2020 - A recently published study conducted between 2011 and 2018 in China, and based on surveillance data in pigs, identified an emerging genotype 4 (G4) reassortant Eurasian avian-like (EA) A(H1N1) swine influenza virus that contains internal genes from the human A(H1N1)pdm09 and North American triple-reassortant (TR) lineage-derived internal genes.
Influenza A(H7N9) virus in China - implications for public health - 7th update, 3 July 2017
3 Jul 2017 - Since the notification of a novel reassortant influenza A(H7N9) virus on 31 March 2013, 1 548 laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus have been reported.
Genetic evolution of influenza A(H7N9) virus in China - implications for public health. Sixth update, 9 March 2017
10 Mar 2017 - This rapid risk assessment builds on the fifth update of the ECDC rapid risk assessments on avian influenza published on 27 January 2017  and on the recent public health development dated 24 February 2017.