Rapid risk assessment: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis – multi-country cluster, Romania, 21 October 2016

Risk assessment
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European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis – multi-country cluster, Romania. 21 October 2016. Stockholm: ECDC; 2016.

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A cluster involving four cases of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) was detected in three students in Romania. An additional contact case was also diagnosed. Two of the cases are UK residents who attended university in Romania and were diagnosed in October 2015 and September 2016. Contact tracing has identified 87 contacts who are now at risk of developing XDR TB disease.
 
ECDC decided to produce this update after new information on the event background become available. The main conclusions and options for response remain unchanged from the version dated 19 October 2016​.

Executive summary

Three cases are students from the University of Medicine and Pharmacy, in the same year of study, and the fourth case is a family contact.

87 contacts were identified as having had exposure and are currently followed up as they are at risk of developing XDR-TB.

All contacts of any additional cases are being traced in order to identify and treat active cases and to identify and monitor those diagnosed with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI).

These contact tracing activities should mitigate the risk of further transmission, but more cases may be expected in association with this cluster.