Outbreak of yellow fever in Brazil - 1st update, 13 April 2017
Brazil has been experiencing a yellow fever outbreak since January 2017 and WHO has recently updated vaccination requirements and recommendations for international travellers accordingly. This risk assessment contains updated advice to travellers and health professionals and the latest information on the epidemiological situation in Brazil, with details of the States affected and the measures being taken.
This is an update of the rapid risk assessment on yellow fever in Brazil following the continuing expansion of the outbreak.
The Brazilian authorities have only reported yellow fever cases related to sylvatic transmission in 2016 and 2017. However, this outbreak should be carefully monitored as the establishment of an urban yellow fever cycle would have the potential to quickly affect a large number of people. EU travellers travelling to areas at risk of yellow fever in South America should be informed of the potential exposure to yellow fever virus and an individual risk benefit analysis should be conducted during pre-travel medical consultation.
The risk of yellow fever transmission in the EU/EEA is currently very low as it depends on the virus being introduced by viraemic travellers to an area with an established, competent and active mosquito vector population.
The rapid risk assessment includes options for response for EU Member States. Notably, this includes advice to EU citizens who travel to, or live in areas where there is evidence of periodic or persistent yellow fever virus transmission, especially those in outbreak-affected regions. They are advised to be aware of the risk of yellow fever in endemic areas throughout South America, including recently affected States in Brazil (Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Pará, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo) and to check vaccination status and get vaccinated if necessary.
Rapid risk assessment: Outbreak of yellow fever in Brazil, Third update.
16 Mar 2018 - In September 2017, the Ministry of Health in Brazil declared the end of the 2016–2017 yellow fever outbreak in the country. The upsurge of human cases since December 2017 and the continuous non-human primate epizootics since September 2017 indicate a continued or resumed increase in yellow fever virus circulation in Brazil. Since January 2018, most of the yellow fever cases have been reported from São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais states.
Rapid risk assessment: Outbreak of yellow fever in Brazil, Second update
18 Jan 2018 - This publication assesses the risk to EU/EEA countries and citizens associated with the ongoing outbreak of yellow fever in Brazil. This is the second update of a rapid risk assessment originally produced on 25 January 2017 and updated on 13 April 2017.
Yellow fever among travellers returning from South America, March 2017
15 Mar 2017 - This risk assessment is triggered by the increase in the number of yellow fever cases among EU travellers with exposure in South America since August 2016 and assesses the risk of contracting yellow fever for travellers to South America.