Healthcare-associated infections acquired in intensive care units - Annual Epidemiological Report for 2019

Surveillance report
Publication series: Annual Epidemiological Report
Time period covered: This report is based on data for 2019 retrieved from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) on 24 April 2023.

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Annual Epidemiological Report for 2019 – Healthcareassociated
infections acquired in intensive care units. In: ECDC. Annual epidemiological report for 2018. Stockholm: ECDC; 2023.

In 2019, 8 874 (7.4%) of patients staying in an intensive care unit (ICU) for more than two days presented with at least one ICU-acquired healthcare-associated infection (HAI) under surveillance (pneumonia, bloodstream infection, or urinary tract infection).

Of all patients staying in an ICU for more than two days, 4% presented with pneumonia, 3% with bloodstream infection (BSI), and 2% with urinary tract infection (UTI). Some 96% of pneumonia episodes were associated with intubation, 44% of BSI episodes were catheter-related, and 94% of UTI episodes were associated with the presence of a urinary catheter. The most frequently isolated microorganism was Klebsiella spp. in ICU-acquired pneumonia episodes, coagulase-negative staphylococci in ICU-acquired bloodstream infections, and Escherichia coli in ICU-acquired urinary tract infections.

Antimicrobial use was empirical in 59% of days of therapy (DOTs), directed in 23% of DOTs, and prophylactic in 14% of DOTs. Some 11% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates were oxacillin-resistant (MRSA), and 14% of Enterococcus spp. isolates were glycopeptide-resistant. Resistance to third-generation cephalosporins was reported in 15% of E. coli isolates, 38% of Klebsiella spp. isolates, and 37% of Enterobacter spp. isolates. Carbapenem resistance was reported in 17% of Klebsiella spp. isolates, 26% of P. aeruginosa isolates, and 82% of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates.