ECDC risk assessment: 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic (Update 30 April 2009)
Influenza A/H1N1 has genetic components from swine influenza (two different types), avian influenza and human influenza viruses. This is thus a ‘quadruple’ recombinant virus. Triple recombinant swine influenza viruses with avian, human and swine genes have previously been circulating in pigs in the US, and have been transmitted to humans [1, 2]. There are several recent examples where influenza viruses of animal origin have been transmitted not only from the animal to humans but also from human to human – the most obvious example being the avian H5N1 influenza which has been circulating in Southeast Asia for more than a decade, and which still causes deaths in the region (even if human-to-human transmission has been very limited for this virus).
Risk assessment: The risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease transmission via blood and plasma-derived medicinal products manufactured from donations obtained in the United Kingdom
3 Aug 2021 - ECDC assessed the risk to the EU/EEA of the presence and the possible transmission of prions, which have been linked to to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, by blood and plasma-derived medicinal products (PDMPs) manufactured from donations obtained in the UK.
Rapid Risk Assessment: Extreme rainfall and catastrophic floods in western Europe
29 Jul 2021 - Extreme rainfall on 14 and 15 July 2021 and subsequent flooding in Western Europe has taken a high number of human lives and caused substantial damage to community infrastructure and the environment. This rapid risk assessment focuses on the most common infectious diseases and health risks associated with flood-affected areas, taking into account evidence from previous similar events in Europe.
Rapid Risk Assessment: COVID-19 outbreaks in long-term care facilities in the EU/EEA in the context of current vaccination coverage
26 Jul 2021 - Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreaks in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries have caused significant morbidity and mortality since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic.