ECDC risk assessment: 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic (Update 30 April 2009)
Influenza A/H1N1 has genetic components from swine influenza (two different types), avian influenza and human influenza viruses. This is thus a ‘quadruple’ recombinant virus. Triple recombinant swine influenza viruses with avian, human and swine genes have previously been circulating in pigs in the US, and have been transmitted to humans [1, 2]. There are several recent examples where influenza viruses of animal origin have been transmitted not only from the animal to humans but also from human to human – the most obvious example being the avian H5N1 influenza which has been circulating in Southeast Asia for more than a decade, and which still causes deaths in the region (even if human-to-human transmission has been very limited for this virus).
Rapid Risk Assessment: Resurgence of reported cases of COVID 19 in the EU/EEA, the UK and EU candidate and potential candidate countries
2 Jul 2020 - While decreasing trends in disease incidence are being observed in Europe overall (12% decrease in 14-day incidence of reported cases between 16 and 30 June), there is still community transmission reported in most EU/EEA countries, the UK and EU candidate and potential candidate countries. Additionally, some countries are reporting a resurgence of observed cases or large localised outbreaks.
Rapid Risk Assessment: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the EU/EEA and the UK – tenth update
11 Jun 2020 - Since 31 December 2019 and as of 9 June 2020, 7 069 278 cases of COVID-19 have been reported worldwide, including 405 587 deaths. EU/EEA countries and the UK reported 1 444 710 cases (20% of all cases), including 169 207 deaths (42% of all deaths).
Rapid risk assessment: Paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome and SARS -CoV-2 infection in children
15 May 2020 - Several countries affected by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic recently reported cases of children that were hospitalised in intensive care due to a rare paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS). The presenting signs and symptoms are a mix of the ones for Kawasaki disease (KD) and toxic shock syndrome (TSS) and are characterised, among others, by fever, abdominal pain and cardiac involvement. A possible temporal association with SARS-COV-2 infection has been hypothesised because some of the children that were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection were either positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or serology.