Latest evidence on COVID-19
Risk factors and risk groups
Severity of COVID-19 is associated with increased age, male sex, and pre-existing medical conditions.
Coronaviruses are mainly transmitted from person to person via respiratory droplets, either by being inhaled or deposited on mucosal surfaces, including aerosols produced when coughing and speaking.
Incubation period, pathology and pathogenesis, viral shedding, and co-infections and secondary infections.
Diagnostic testing and screening
Diagnostic specimens, antibody testing, storage and shipping of specimens, testing methods and genetic characterisation of SARS-CoV-2, detection of variant viruses, neutralisation assays and antigenic characterisation of SARS-CoV-2 and biosafety.
Immune responses and immunity
Immune responses (cell-mediated immune response and antibody-mediated immune response and protective immunity) and population immunity
Treatment and pharmaceutical prophylaxis
Several medicinal products have been studied or are currently undergoing clinical trials to assess their safety and efficacy as potential agents for pharmaceutical prophylaxis or treatment of COVID-19.
Latest risk assessment
Threat Assessment Brief: Implications of the emergence and spread of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1. 529 variant of concern (Omicron) for the EU/EEA
A SARS-CoV-2 variant belonging to Pango lineage B.1.1.529, with a high number of S-gene mutations compared to the original virus was detected at the beginning of November 2021. On 26 November 2021 the variant was designated a variant of concern (VOC) and assigned the label Omicron by the World Health Organization (WHO).
See all information on COVID-19, situation updates, risk assessments, questions and answers, latest evidence, surveillance and laboratory guidance and how to protect yourself and others.Read more
Latest risk assessment: current SARS-CoV-2 epidemiological situation in the EU/EEA, projections for the end-of-year festive season and strategies for response, 24 November 2021
ECDC risk assessments aim at supporting the EU/EEA countries and the European Commission in their preparedness and response to a public health threat.Read more