Latest evidence on COVID-19
Please note that this section is no longer being updated. ECDC is currently developing a factsheet for health professionals on COVID-19 which will be made available in the first quarter of 2023.
Diagnostic testing and screening
Diagnostic specimens, antibody testing, storage and shipping of specimens, testing methods and genetic characterisation of SARS-CoV-2, detection of variant viruses, neutralisation assays and antigenic characterisation of SARS-CoV-2 and biosafety.
Immune responses and immunity
Immune responses (cell-mediated immune response and antibody-mediated immune response and protective immunity) and population immunity
Incubation period, pathology and pathogenesis, viral shedding, and co-infections and secondary infections.
Risk factors and risk groups
Severity of COVID-19 is associated with increased age, male sex, and pre-existing medical conditions.
SARS-CoV-2 in children
Information about SARS-CoV-2 incidence in children, susceptibility and the severity of the disease for children and child vaccination.
Treatment and pharmaceutical prophylaxis
Several medicinal products have been studied or are currently undergoing clinical trials to assess their safety and efficacy as potential agents for pharmaceutical prophylaxis or treatment of COVID-19.
Social contact patterns in the EU/EEA during the COVID-19 pandemic
This survey (CoMix) was conducted to enhance our understanding of contact mixing during the transition period beyond the acute phase of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Latest risk assessment
Scientific and technical publications
SARS-CoV-2 in animals: susceptibility of animal species, risk for animal and public health, monitoring, prevention and control
The epidemiological situation of SARS-CoV-2 in humans and animals is continually evolving. To date, animal species known to transmit SARS-CoV-2 are American mink, raccoon dog, cat, ferret, hamster, house mouse, Egyptian fruit bat, deer mouse and white-tailed deer. Among farmed animals, American mink have the highest likelihood to become infected from humans or animals and further transmit SARS-CoV-2.
See all information on COVID-19, situation updates, risk assessments, questions and answers, latest evidence, surveillance and laboratory guidance and how to protect yourself and others.Read more
Latest risk assessments on COVID-19
ECDC risk assessments aim at supporting the EU/EEA countries and the European Commission in their preparedness and response to a public health threat.Read more