The European Union One Health 2020 Zoonoses Report
This report of the EFSA and ECDC presents the results of zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2020 in 27 EU Member States (MS) and nine non-MS. Key statistics on zoonoses and zoonotic agents in humans, food, animals and feed are provided and interpreted historically.
Two events impacted 2020 MS data collection and related statistics: the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU. In 2020, the first and second most reported zoonoses in humans were campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis, respectively. The EU trend for confirmed human cases of these two diseases was stable (flat) from 2016 to 2020. Fourteen of the 26 MS reporting data on Salmonella control programmes in poultry met the reduction targets for all poultry categories. Salmonella results for carcases of various species performed by competent authorities were more frequently positive than own-checks conducted by food business operators. This was also the case for Campylobacter quantification results from broiler carcases for the MS group that submitted data from both samplers, whereas overall at EU level, those percentages were comparable. Yersiniosis was the third most reported zoonosis in humans, with 10-fold less cases reported than salmonellosis, followed by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Listeria monocytogenes infections. Illnesses caused by L. monocytogenes and West Nile virus infections were the most severe zoonotic diseases with the highest case fatality. In 2020, 27 MS reported 3,086 foodborne outbreaks (a 47.0% decrease from 2019) and 20,017 human cases (a 61.3% decrease). Salmonella remained the most frequently reported causative agent for foodborne outbreaks. Salmonella in ‘eggs and egg products’, norovirus in ‘crustaceans, shellfish, molluscs and products containing them’ and L. monocytogenes in ‘fish and fish products’ were the agent/food pairs of most concern. This report also provides updates on tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium caprae, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma, rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) and tularaemia.