First surveys to investigate the presence of canine leishmaniasis and its Phlebotomine vectors in HungaryArchived
Hungary is regarded as free of leishmaniasis because only a few imported cases have been reported. However, southern Hungary has a sub-Mediterranean climate, and so it was included in the EU FP6 EDEN project, which aimed to map the northern limits of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Europe.
Farkas R 1, Tánczos B 1, Bongiorno G 2, Maroli M 2, Dereure J 3, Ready PD 4.1 Department of Parasitology and Zoology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Szent István University, Budapest, Hungary.2 Section of Vector-Borne Diseases and International Health, MIPI Department, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.3 Centre National de Référence des Leishmania, Laboratoire de Parasitologie-Mycologie, Université Montpellier 1, Montpellier, France.4 Department of Entomology, Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases Jan. 2011. [Ahead of print.] doi:10.1089/vbz.2010.0186.
Hungary is regarded as free of leishmaniasis because only a few imported cases have been reported. However, southern Hungary has a sub-Mediterranean climate, and so it was included in the EU FP6 EDEN project, which aimed to map the northern limits of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Europe. The numbers of traveling and imported dogs have increased in the last decade, raising concerns about the introduction of CanL caused by Leishmania infantum. Serum samples were collected from 725 dogs (22 localities, 6 counties) that had never traveled to endemic countries, as well as from other potential reservoir hosts (185 red foxes and 13 golden jackals). All sera were tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test, but they were sero-negative using the OIE cut-off of 1:80 serum dilution except for those of two dogs resident since birth in southern Hungary. These had not received a blood transfusion, but the mode of transmission is unclear because no sandfly vectors were caught locally. From 2006 to 2009, phlebotomine sandflies were sampled in the summer months at 47 localities of 8 counties. They were trapped with castor-oil-impregnated sticky-paper, light, and CO(2)-baited traps. Small numbers of two vectors of Leishmania infantum were found. Phlebotomus neglectus occurred in three villages near to Croatia and one in north Hungary at latitude 47°N, and Phlebotomus perfiliewi perfiliewi was trapped at two sites in a southeastern county close to the sites where it was first found in 1931-1932. Our report provides baseline data for future investigations into the northward spread of CanL into Hungary, which we conclude has yet to occur.
VBORNET comment: 2010-04-12
Farkas et al. aimed to investigate the presence of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) and its phlebotomine vectors in Hungary. A serological study was performed by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) on dogs that had never traveled in endemic focus and on other potential reservoirs hosts (foxes and golden jackals). Phlebotomine sand flies were collected from July to September during a 4-year period (2006-2009) by sticky-paper, light and CO2-baited traps. Two healthy dogs out of 705 dogs were found to be a borderline IFAT positive for Leishmania. Nevertheless, these dogs were found IFAT negative for Leishmania after one year. The serum samples of the 185 foxes and 13 jackals were identified as IFAT negative. According to surveys of veterinarians, up to now all the declared CanL cases have been imported from Mediterranean basin countries. Two of the three known vectors of L. infantum in the southeastern Europe, Phlebotomus perfiliewi perfiliewi and P. neglectus were found in low numbers (513 specimens in four summer sampling) during the study. It is worth noting that no sand fly vectors were caught around the two transitory seropositive dogs. A new record for Hungary was the finding of P. mascittii in three out of eight surveyed counties, particularly in the northern part of Hungary. The results of this study show that there is no evidence of the presence of CanL in Hungary. Nevertheless, since two main vectors of L. infantum are present in nearby countries in which the CanL already occurs, such as Croatia and Serbia, there is a potential risk of northward spread of CanL into Hungary.
Distribution of Leishmania major zymodemes in relation to populations of Phlebotomus papatasi sand fliesArchived
7 Jul 2011 - Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the main vector of Leishmania major Yakimoff & Schokhor (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), the causative agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Old World.
Spatial distribution of phlebotomine sand flies in the Aydin Mountains and surroundings: the main focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in western TurkeyArchived
7 Jul 2011 - An entomological survey was conducted to determine the spatial distribution of phlebotomine fauna and understand the effect of environmental factors.
Canine leishmaniasis surveillance in a northern Italy kennelArchived
7 Jul 2011 - The presence of the disease was shown in the canine population for the first time in 2007 by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The parasite circulation was confirmed also by direct diagnostic tools, as PCR, cytology and cultural method, performed on different bioptic materials.