Influenza virus characterisation - Summary Europe, June 2012
Since 01 January 2012, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, influenza A(H3N2), and influenza B/Victoria- and B/Yamagata-lineage viruses have been detected in ECDC-affiliated countries.
Type A viruses have predominated over type B.
A(H3N2) viruses have predominated over A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses.
A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses continue to show genetic drift from the vaccine virus, A/California/07/2009, but the vast majority are antigenically similar to A/California/07/2009.
During this time period, all A(H3N2) viruses sequenced fell within five genetic groups. Test viruses isolated in mammalian cells show low titres with post-infection ferret antisera raised against egg-propagated viruses, including the new vaccine virus A/Victoria/361/2011. They react well with post-infection ferret antisera raised against A/Victoria/361/2011 and other current reference viruses exclusively propagated in tissue culture.
Recent B/Victoria lineage viruses fell within the B/Brisbane/60/2008 genetic clade and were antigenically similar to reference cell-propagated viruses of the B/Brisbane/60/2008 genetic clade.
Recent B/Yamagata-lineage viruses fell into two genetic clades, the B/Bangladesh/3333/2007 and B/Wisconsin/1/2010 genetic clade or into the B/Brisbane/3/2007 genetic clade; viruses in these clades are antigenically distinguishable.
The latest issue of ECDC’s series of technical documents on 'Influenza virus characterisation’ covers the time period from January 2012 to June 2012.
In the first six months of the year, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza at the MRC National Institute for Medical Research in London received and analysed a total of 426 virus samples, submitted by 23 EU/EAA countries. The results showed that all A(H3N2) viruses sequenced fell within five genetic groups, and that these groups have predominated over A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses.
Following further details on the analysis of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza A(H3N2) viruses, the report provides eight phylogenetic tree charts, produced by the Community Network of Reference Laboratories (CNRL) for Human Influenza in Europe, that graphically represent the proportion of nucleotide changes in the viruses’ DNA sequence. The tree charts are supplemented by several tables that list the results of the antigenic analyses of several virus types, including the now-dominant A(H3N2) viruses.
Tularaemia Annual Epidemiological Report for 2018
12 Nov 2019 - For 2018, 18 countries in the EU/EEA reported 441 cases of tularaemia, 358 (81%) of which were confirmed. The EU/EEA notification rate for 2018 was 0.07 cases per 100 000 population. The male-to-female ratio was 1.7:1. As in previous years, the notification rate among males was higher in most age groups except for the age groups between 5 and 24 years. Notification rates increased with age and peaked at 45–64 years.
Monthly measles and rubella monitoring report, November 2019
11 Nov 2019 - The monitoring report is based on measles and rubella data from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) for 1 October 2018 to 30 September 2019. Twenty-nine countries reported measles data for September 2019, of which 280 cases were reported by 17 countries; 12 countries reported no cases. Overall, case numbers continued to decrease compared with the previous two months. Romania and France had the highest case counts with 112 and 56 cases, respectively. Notable decreases were reported in France, Italy, the United Kingdom and Lithuania.