ECDC/EFSA/EMA first joint report on the integrated analysis of the consumption of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from humans and food-producing animals
Joint Interagency Antimicrobial Consumption and Resistance Analysis (JIACRA) ReportThe ECDC, the EFSA and the EMA have for the first time jointly explored associations between consumption of antimicrobials in humans and food-producing animals, and antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from humans and food-producing animals, using 2011 and 2012 data currently available from their relevant five EU monitoring networks.
A summary indicator of the proportion of resistant bacteria in the main food-producing animal species was calculated for the analysis, as consumption data in food-producing animals were not available at the species level. Comparison of antimicrobial consumption data in animals and humans in 2012, both expressed in milligrams per kilogram of estimated biomass, revealed that overall antimicrobial consumption was higher in animals than in humans, although contrasting situations were observed between countries.
The consumption of several antimicrobials extensively used in animal husbandry was higher in animals than in humans, while consumption of antimicrobials critically important for human medicine (such as fluoroquinolones and 3rd-and 4th-generation cephalosporins) was higher in humans. In both humans and animals, positive associations between consumption of antimicrobials and the corresponding resistance in bacteria were observed for most of the combinations investigated. In some cases, a positive association was also found between antimicrobial consumption in animals and resistance in bacteria from humans. While highlighting findings of concern, these results should be interpreted with caution owing to current data limitations and the complexity of the AMR phenomenon, which is influenced by several factors besides antimicrobial consumption. Recommendations to address current data limitations for analyses of this type were identified. In any case, responsible use of antimicrobials in both humans and animals should be promoted.
The European Union Summary Report on Antimicrobial Resistance in zoonotic and indicator bacteria from humans, animals and food in 2018/2019
8 Apr 2021 - In 2018–2019, data on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and indicator bacteria, submitted by 28 EU Member States (MSs), were jointly analysed by the EFSA and the ECDC.
Antimicrobial resistance in the EU/EEA (EARS-Net) - Annual Epidemiological Report for 2019
18 Nov 2020 - This report is based on data reported to the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net) for the period 2015 to 2019, retrieved from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) and ECDC’s decentralised data storage for antimicrobial resistance and healthcare-associated infections (ARHAI) on 10 September 2020.
Antimicrobial consumption - Annual Epidemiological Report for 2019
18 Nov 2020 - In 2019, the average total (community and hospital sector combined) consumption of antibacterials for systemic use (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) group J01) in the EU/EEA was 19.4 defined daily doses (DDD) per 1 000 inhabitants per day (country range: 9.5–34.1). During the period 2010–2019, a statistically significant decrease was observed for the EU/EEA overall.