Yellow fever transmission could affect urban areas in Brazil, increasing the risk to travellers, especially during Carnival


ECDC issues new risk assessment in light of the yellow fever resurgence in Brazil (in particular in São Paulo) and the expected increasing flow of travellers during the upcoming Carnival.

Yellow fever cases in Brazil, 16 January 2018

Since September 2017, 34 laboratory-confirmed cases, including 20 deaths were reported by the Brazilian national authorities: in the states of São Paulo (20 cases, including eleven deaths), Minas Gerais (11 cases, including seven deaths), Rio de Janeiro (two cases, including one death) and in the Federal District (one fatal case).

Carnival, one of the largest international mass gatherings in Brazil, will take place from 9 to 14 February 2018, and will attract a significant number of international travellers. With the travellers’ flow to the urban areas in Brazil, the number of unvaccinated travellers being infected may increase in the coming month.

EU/EEA travellers to areas at risk of yellow fever in Brazil should check their vaccination status and if necessary get vaccinated, states the risk assessment. Vaccination requirements and recommendations for international travellers are available on the World Health Organization’s website. Travellers should also take measures to prevent mosquito bites.

Since January 2017, three unvaccinated EU/EEA travellers have been infected after travelling to areas with yellow transmission, the most recent one is a traveller returning from Brazil, in January 2018.

Read the risk assessment: Rapid risk assessment: Outbreak of yellow fever in Brazil, Second update