Vaccine-preventable diseases

Latest updates

Data

Weekly influenza update, week 6, February 2020

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Are European laboratories ready to detect COVID-19?

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Communicable disease threats report, 9-15 February 2020, week 7

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Risk assessment: Outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): increased transmission beyond China – fourth update

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Communicable disease threats report, 9-15 February 2020, week 7

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Publication

Risk assessment: Outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): increased transmission beyond China – fourth update

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Publication

Guidance on community engagement for public health events caused by communicable disease threats in the EU/EEA

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Monthly measles and rubella monitoring report, February 2020

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Are European laboratories ready to detect COVID-19?

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Increase in avian influenza virus outbreaks in Europe

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Ready to respond: ECDC fellowship programme fellows supporting Europe’s response to the novel Coronavirus

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ECDC statement following reported confirmed case of 2019-nCoV in Germany

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Event

European Scientific Conference on Applied Infectious Disease Epidemiology 2018

21 Nov 2018 - 23 Nov 2018
Saint Julian's, Malta

Event

European Immunization Week, 2020

20 Apr 2020 - 26 Apr 2020
WHO Regional Office for Europe

Event

Consultation on digital technologies for public health functions

24 Mar 2020 - 25 Mar 2020
Stockholm

Event

World AIDS Day 2019 - Taking a closer look: HIV in women in Europe

1 Dec 2019

Data

Weekly influenza update, week 6, February 2020

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Measles notification rate per million population by country, EU/EEA, 1 January 2019–31 December 2019

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Vaccination coverage for first dose of a measles- and rubella-containing vaccine, EU/EEA, 2018

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Number of rubella cases by country, EU/EEA, December 2019 (n=12)

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Vaccine-preventable diseases

2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic

The 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic was declared over in August 2010 by the World Health Organization. Europe has now entered a new inter-pandemic phase of seasonal influenza.

Cholera

Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera of serogroups O1 or O139. Humans are the only relevant reservoir, even though Vibrios can survive for a long time in coastal waters contaminated by human excreta.

Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)

Congenital rubella is the infection of a foetus with rubella virus following the infection of the mother during pregnancy. ‘Congenital’ indicates that the foetus also becomes infected during pregnancy.

Diphtheria

Diphtheria is a disease caused by bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans. It can cause respiratory symptoms or non-respiratory forms that affect other parts of the body, including the skin.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and is spread through contact with infected body fluids or blood products.

Human papillomavirus

Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer after breast cancer to affect women aged 15–44 years in the European Union. Each year, there are around 33 000 cases of cervical cancer in the EU, and 15 000 deaths. The primary cause of cervical cancer is a persistent infection of the genital tract by some specific types of human papillomavirus (HPV).

Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is an obligate human pathogen and an important cause of invasive bacterial infections in both children and adults, with the highest incidence among young children.

Invasive pneumococcal disease

Despite good access to effective antibiotics, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) is still a major cause of disease and death in both developing and developed countries.

Japanese encephalitis

The Japanese encephalitis virus is present in Asia, from Japan to India and Pakistan, and outbreaks are erratic and spatially and temporally limited phenomena, occurring quite unpredictably, even if all conditions appear to be present in a definite place. It is a leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, with 30-50,000 cases reported annually. Most human infections are asymptomatic. On average, one person in 200 infected develops a severe neuroinvasive illness. The case fatality rate in patients with severe disease is 20- 30% 

Measles

Measles is an acute, highly contagious viral disease capable of causing epidemics. Infectivity is close to 100% in susceptible individuals and in the pre-vaccine era measles would affect nearly every individual during childhood.

Meningococcal disease

Meningococcal disease is caused by Neisseria meningitidis, a bacterium with human carriers as the only reservoir. It is carried in the nose, where it can remain for long periods without producing symptoms.

Mumps

Mumps is an acute illness caused by the mumps virus. It is characterised by fever and swelling of one or more salivary glands (mumps is the only cause of epidemic infectious parotitis).

Pertussis

Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a highly contagious acute respiratory infection, caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. The disease is characterised by a severe cough, which can last two months or even longer.

Poliomyelitis

Poliomyelitis, also known as polio or infantile paralysis, is a vaccine-preventable systemic viral infection affecting the motor neurons of the central nervous system (CNS). Historically, it has been a major cause of mortality, acute paralysis and lifelong disabilities but large scale immunisation programmes have eliminated polio from most areas of the world.

Rabies

Rabies is a disease caused by rabies virus (a Lyssavirus). Every year, a small number of cases of rabies is reported in Europe - travel-related or autochthonous.

Rotavirus infection

Rotavirus infection is an acute infectious disease mainly affecting children. The main symptoms are fever, vomiting and diarrhoea and many affected children suffer from extensive fluid loss in need of medical attention. The incubation period is 1-2 days.

Rubella

Rubella is a mild febrile rash illness caused by rubella virus. It is transmitted from person to person via droplets (the virus is present in throat secretions). It affects mainly, but not only, children and when pregnant women are infected, it may result in malformation of the foetus. Humans are the only reservoir of infection.

Seasonal influenza

Seasonal influenza is a preventable infectious disease with mostly respiratory symptoms. It is caused by influenza virus and is easily transmitted, predominantly via the droplet and contact routes and by indirect spread from respiratory secretions on hands etc.

Smallpox

Smallpox was a systemic disease, officially eradicated since 1979 (WHO), caused by infection with the Variola major virus, whose only reservoir was infected humans.

Tetanus

Tetanus is an often fatal disease, which is present worldwide. It is a consequence of a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The main reservoirs of the bacterium are herbivores, which harbour the bacteria in their bowels (with no consequences for them) and disseminate the “spore form” of the bacteria in the environment with their faeces.

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infectious disease that can be fatal. It most commonly affects the lungs.

Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever

Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers are systemic diseases caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi, respectively.

Varicella

Varicella (chickenpox) is caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which also causes shingles. The virus spreads through the body into the skin causing rashes to appear.

Yellow fever

Yellow fever (YF) cause a wide spectrum of symptoms, from mild to fatal. In severe cases there may be spontaneous haemorrhage. Mortality of these clinical cases can be as high as 80%, on a par with Ebola, Marburg and other haemorrhagic viral infections.