Newer enhanced vaccines
Based on a systematic literature review, ECDC assessed the efficacy, effectiveness and safety of newer and enhanced inactivated seasonal influenza (flu) vaccines among those 18 years or older. These assessed are MF59® adjuvanted, cell-based, high-dose, and recombinant haemagglutinin influenza vaccines.Read more
Flu Awareness Week
The Flu Awareness Week is marked across the WHO European Region every year in October. It aims to raise awareness of the importance of vaccination for people’s health and well-being and to increase the uptake of seasonal influenza vaccination of people with underlying risk factors.Read more
European Vaccination Portal
Visit the European Vaccination Portal to get objective, up-to-date information on vaccines and vaccination.Read more
Poster: Influenza during the COVID-19 pandemic - why it's important to get vaccinated against influenza
Looking at newer enhanced seasonal influenza vaccines: a systematic review of efficacy, effectiveness and safety
Systematic review of the efficacy, effectiveness and safety of newer and enhanced seasonal influenza vaccines
WHO recommendations for influenza virus vaccine composition for the 2018-2019 Northern hemisphere season
- Weekly influenza update
- Influenza Virus Characterisations Reports, summary Europe
- Disease data from ECDC Surveillance Atlas
- Influenza season summaries
- Annual epidemiological reports
- National, regional and global influenza surveillance reports
- Facts about influenza surveillance
- ECDC publications and peer-reviewed articles
Microbiology and laboratory reports; External quality assessments, Influenza virus characterisations.
ECDC brings together health communication research and best practices, and develops practical resources with the aim to assist public health authorities in Member States in their health promotion initiatives.
Joint ECDC-WHO/Europe weekly influenza update
In collaboration with WHO Regional Office for Europe, ECDC monitors and reports on influenza activity in Europe on a weekly basis throughout the flu season in the report Flu News Europe.
Go to the report
Influenza Virus Characterisation Reports, summary Europe
The influenza virus characterisation reports give an overview of circulating influenza viruses in Europe. They provide details on the current vaccine strains, summarise the development of the viruses since the last report, and closely follow the main developments for the ongoing influenza season.Read more
30% of the burden of communicable diseases in Europe is due to influenza
New study in Eurosurveillance, published April 2018, on the impact of infectious diseases on population in the European Union and European Economic Area countries.Go to the article
Expert opinion on neuraminidase inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of influenza - review of recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses
14 Aug 2017 - This ECDC expert opinion confirms earlier assessments by ECDC and national authorities that there is no significant new evidence to support any changes to the approved indications and recommended use of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) in EU/EEA Member States.
How close are countries of the WHO European Region to achieving the goal of vaccinating 75% of key risk groups against influenza?
How close are countries of the WHO European Region to achieving the goal of vaccinating 75% of key risk groups against influenza? Results from national surveys on seasonal influenza vaccination programmes, 2008/2009 to 2014/2015. Published in the Science, 36 (4), 25 Jan 2018.Read the article
Interim 2017/18 influenza seasonal vaccine effectiveness: combined results from five European studies
Between September 2017 and February 2018, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and B viruses (mainly B/Yamagata, not included in 2017/18 trivalent vaccines) co-circulated in Europe. Interim results from five European studies indicate that, in all age groups, 2017/18 influenza vaccine effectiveness was 25 to 52% against any influenza, 55 to 68% against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, −42 to 7% against influenza A(H3N2) and 36 to 54% against influenza B.Go to the article
Other types of influenza
Disease / public health area
Avian influenza is an infectious viral disease in birds, including domestic poultry. Avian influenza is mainly found in birds, but under certain circumstances infections can also occur in humans even though the risk is generally very low.
Disease / public health area
A pandemic is the rapid spread of a new human influenza around the world. Influenza pandemics happen when a new strain of a flu virus appears which can infect humans, to which most people have no immunity and which can transmit efficiently from human to human.
Disease / public health area
Swine influenza is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza viruses that regularly cause outbreaks of influenza in pigs. Influenza viruses that commonly circulate in swine are called “swine influenza viruses” or “swine flu viruses.” Like human influenza viruses, there are different subtypes and strains of swine influenza viruses.
ECDC disease programmes and networks
European Influenza Surveillance Network (EISN)
The network combines epidemiological and virological surveillance of influenza.Read more
European Reference Laboratory Network for Human Influenza (ERLI-Net)
The ERLI-Net sub-network of reference laboratories of the European Influenza Surveillance Network carries out virological surveillance of human influenza in the EU/EEA through the EISN timely reporting mechanism and strengthening laboratory capacity for influenza virus detection, antiviral susceptibility testing and typing.Read more