WHO Guidance for Surveillance during an Influenza Pandemic
This guidance is an update to an earlier document “Global surveillance during an influenza pandemic”, published in April 2009. It takes the lesions learned from the 2009 influenza pandemic into consideration and focuses on the key surveillance components needed during an influenza pandemic. The purpose of the updated guidance is to outline the surveillance strategies and essential data requirements that Member States can use throughout the course of an influenza pandemic to ensure informed risk management decisions in pandemic response and fulfilment of IHR (2005) core capacity requirements.
WHO Europe: Influenza
WHO/Europe aim to reduce influenza-related morbidity and mortality by strengthening virological and epidemiological surveillance for mild and severe influenza; using surveillance data to estimate the burden of influenza in order to prioritize national influenza vaccination programmes; and maintaining and strengthening pandemic preparedness activities at the national level. WHO/Europe also monitors the emergence of other respiratory pathogens that have the potential to spread among humans. These include coronaviruses, which cause a range of illnesses from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to the common cold.
CDC (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention): Influenza
CDC works 24/7 to protect America from health, safety and security threats, both foreign and in the U.S. Whether diseases start at home or abroad, are chronic or acute, curable or preventable, human error or deliberate attack, CDC fights disease and supports communities and citizens to do the same.
WHO: Global influenza updates
The summaries of global surveillance are based on data gathered through global and regional data sharing platforms, and direct reports from Member States.
WHO global web-based tool for influenza virological surveillance (FluNet)
FluNet is a global web-based tool for influenza virological surveillance. The number of influenza viruses detected by subtype are critical for tracking the movement of viruses globally and interpreting the epidemiological data. The data at country level are publically available and updated weekly. The results are presented in various formats including tables, maps and graphs.
WHO Regional Office for the Americas PAHO: Influenza updates (FluNet PAHO)
The influenza surveillance data is provided by Ministries of Health and National Influenza Centers of Member States to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) or from updates on the Member States' Ministry of Health web pages.
WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS)
WHO GISRS monitors the evolution of influenza viruses and provides recommendations in areas including laboratory diagnostics, vaccines, antiviral susceptibility and risk assessment. WHO GISRS also serves as a global alert mechanism for the emergence of influenza viruses with pandemic potential.
WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region: Influenza updates (EMFLU)
Eastern Mediterranean Flu (EMFLU) is a regional platform for sharing of epidemiological and virological data on influenza in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region.
WHO Europe/ECDC: Weekly influenza update (Flu News Europe)
In collaboration with WHO Regional Office for Europe, ECDC monitors and reports on influenza activity in Europe on a weekly basis throughout the flu season. Flu News Europe provides surveillance data for the European region.