Risk assessment: Laboratory-created A(H5N1) viruses transmissible between ferrets
The results of two, as yet unpublished, investigations of laboratory-induced genetic changes in avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses have been reported to have found that a surprisingly few number of changes make the viruses transmissible between ferrets, the most commonly used model for the way influenza behaves in humans. The possibility that this could have resulted in the development in laboratories of A(H5N1) influenza viruses transmissible between humans has caused concern for public safety and generated unusually high levels of debate in the scientific community. This report summarises and explains the complex public health and scientific issues around these developments including the positive and negative aspects of some of the responses that have been proposed internationally.
Rapid risk assessment: Potential contamination of Viaspan® organ perfusion solution
Rapid risk assessment: Multi-country outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes PCR serogroup IVb, MLST ST6
A multi-country outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes PCR serogroup IVb, MLST ST6 has been ongoing in the EU/EEA since at least 2015.
Joint Rapid Outbreak Assessment: Multi-country outbreak of Salmonella Agona infections linked to infant formula
This document provides an assessment of the public health risk associated with a multi-country outbreak of Salmonella Agona associated with consumption of potentially contaminated infant formula from France.
Rapid risk assessment: Candida auris in healthcare settings – Europe
This rapid risk assessment update appraises the risk for spread of C. auris in hospitals in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries
Rapid risk assessment: Multi-country outbreak of hepatitis A virus genotype IA infections affecting EU countries in 2018
After the EPIS FWD notification of a cluster of hepatitis A cases infected with two distinct strains in several EU/EEA countries, this risk assessment presents the early findings of this multi-country hepatitis A outbreak and sets out initial options for response.
Rapid risk assessment: Multi-country outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes serogroup IVb, multi-locus sequence type 6, infections linked to frozen corn and possibly to other frozen vegetables – first update
This document provides an updated assessment of the cross-border public health risk associated with consumption of frozen corn and possibly linked to other frozen vegetables contaminated with L. monocytogenes.
Rapid risk assessment: Multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis
This rapid risk assessment addresses the public health risk associated with a previously unrecognised international spread of near pandrug-resistant strains of S. epidermidis as a cause of infection in several countries including EU Member States.
Cluster of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium with previously unseen MLVA pattern in the EU/EEA
This joint rapid outbreak assessment from ECDC and EFSA assesses a cluster of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium with an MLVA pattern previously unseen in the EU/EEA.
Re-emerging multi-country WGS-defined outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis, MLVA type 2-12-7-3-2 and 2-14-7-3-2, 6 February 2017
This rapid risk assessment assesses the recurrent multi-country outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis due to a persistent source of infection, with current or recent exposure in at least four EU/EEA Member States.