Risk assessment: Severe respiratory disease associated with a novel coronavirus, 26 September 2012
Following the identification of a novel coronavirus in two patients, both having been in Saudi Arabia albeit three months apart, ECDC has prepared a rapid risk assessment to consider the risk to the public in the EU. A version of this risk assessment was shared with EU and EEA national public health competent bodies and WHO on 24 September.
Rapid risk assessment, update: Severe respiratory disease associated with a novel coronavirus
CDC updated risk assessment concludes that in the absence of evidence of sustained person-to-person transmission outside of household settings, the current facts still point towards a hypothesis of a zoonotic or environmental source with occasional transmission to exposed humans. WHO does not advise any travel or trade restrictions at this point for KSA or Qatar.
Rapid Risk Assessment: Severe respiratory disease associated with a novel coronavirus
New and noteworthy in this update: the retrospective identification of novel coronavirus in biological samples from two fatal cases in Jordan (April 2012) and the results of a joint ECDC/WHO survey which confirms that EU/EEA Member States have an adequate capacity to detect novel coronavirus through their network of national reference laboratories: 18 of 30 in EU/EEA countries are capable of confirming positive screened samples by either ORF1b RT-PCR or other target RT-PCR assays with sequence analysis or whole-genome sequence analysis.
RRA: Severe respiratory disease associated with MERS-CoV, 4th update; 17 May 2013
This fourth update of the rapid risk assessment of severe respiratory disease associated with a novel coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was produced in relation to 22 additional cases of laboratory-confirmed infections reported in the last two months.
Human infection with a novel avian influenza virus, A(H7N9), China - 2nd update, 8 May 2013
This second update to ECDC's initial risk assessment concludes that the risk of the disease spreading to Europe via humans or through poultry is still low at this time.
Rapid risk assessment on influenza A(H7N9) China, 12 April 2013
On 31 March 2013, Chinese authorities announced the identification of a novel reassortant A(H7N9) influenza virus isolated from three unlinked cases of severe respiratory disease in eastern China. This is the first time that human infection with avian influenza virus A(H7N9) has been identified.
Since then, human cases have continued to be reported from eastern China. As of 11 April, there were 38 laboratory-confirmed cases including ten deaths reported from four bordering provinces with a concentration of cases in and around Shanghai. Cases occur sporadically, without obvious epidemiological links. There is currently no confirmed human-to-human transmission.
Rapid Risk Assessment: Cyclovirus in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with central nervous system infection
This assessment is related to the publication of the identification of a new cyclovirus species, tentatively named cyclovirus-Vietnam (CyCV-VN), in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute central nervous system infection. However, there are insufficient data to assess the risk for disease occurrence in humans or potential of human-to-human transmission. Further studies should be encouraged in Europe and elsewhere to investigate the possible pathogenicity, epidemiology, and transmission patterns of cycloviruses.
Updated Rapid Risk Assessment: Severe respiratory disease associated with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV)
As of 17 June 2013, 64 cases of MERS-CoV had been reported worldwide, including 38 deaths. All cases remain associated (including indirect association following secondary person-to-person transmission in the UK, Italy, Tunisia and France) with transmission in the Middle East. The age of cases ranges from two years to 94 years (N=60 cases, information on age not available for four cases), with a median of 56 years. Overall 70% (43/61) of cases are males.
The reports of new infections in Saudi Arabia over the past few weeks indicate that there is an ongoing source of infection and low risk of transmission to humans in the Middle East.
Rapid Risk Assessment: Severe respiratory disease associated with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV)
As of 18 July 2013, 88 confirmed cases of MERS-CoV had been reported worldwide of which 45 have been fatal. To date, all cases have either occurred in the Middle East or have had direct links to a primary case infected in the Middle East. Saudi Arabia has reported 68 cases including 38 deaths. Thirteen cases have been reported from outside of the Middle East. These 13 cases resulted from seven separate chains of transmission. The primary case for each chain had been infected in the Middle East.
Unusual increase in reported cases of paratyphoid A fever among travellers returning from Cambodia
This rapid risk assessment analyses the unusual increase in the number of paratyphoid A infections in EU travellers returning from Cambodia since March 2013 with a possible persistent common source.