Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae - second update
Carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae such as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli poses a significant threat to patients and healthcare systems in all European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections are associated with high mortality, primarily due to delays in administration of effective treatment and the limited availability of treatment options. Hypervirulent carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae strains have been reported presenting an additional threat with a potential for global dissemination. The spread of high risk clones and plasmids carrying carbapenemases in healthcare settings is a major cause of the spread of CRE in EU/EEA countries. Recent events of cross-border importation after patient transfer and large regional outbreaks as well as the worsening epidemiologic situation of carbapenemase-producing CRE in the EU/EEA highlight the high risk for further spread of CRE and the need for enhanced control efforts. Options for control are outlined in the respective section below.
Rapid risk assessment: Regional outbreak of New Delhi metallo-betalactamase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, Italy, 2018–2019
A large outbreak of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM)-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) has been reported from the Tuscany region in Italy. Between November 2018 and May 2019, seven Tuscan hospitals notified a total of 350 cases.
Laboratory manual for carbapenem and colistin resistance detection and characterisation for the survey of carbapenem- and/or colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae
This protocol is based partly on the laboratory manual developed for the European survey of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EuSCAPE)
Rapid risk assessment: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae - first update
This update of the 2016 ECDC Rapid Risk Assessment on carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) evaluates the risk for patients and healthcare systems in EU/EEA countries due to the global spread of CRE.
Rapid Risk Assessment: Plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, 15 June 2016
This document assesses the risk for patients and healthcare systems in the EU/EEA due to the global mcr-1 plasmid-mediated gene epidemic.
Rapid risk assessment: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, 14 April 2016
This rapid risk assessment provides several options to reduce the risk of CRE, e.g. treatment options, transmission prevention and measures related to the healthcare system.