Risk assessment: Laboratory-created A(H5N1) viruses transmissible between ferrets
The results of two, as yet unpublished, investigations of laboratory-induced genetic changes in avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses have been reported to have found that a surprisingly few number of changes make the viruses transmissible between ferrets, the most commonly used model for the way influenza behaves in humans. The possibility that this could have resulted in the development in laboratories of A(H5N1) influenza viruses transmissible between humans has caused concern for public safety and generated unusually high levels of debate in the scientific community. This report summarises and explains the complex public health and scientific issues around these developments including the positive and negative aspects of some of the responses that have been proposed internationally.
Human infection with a novel avian influenza virus, A(H7N9), China - 2nd update, 8 May 2013
This second update to ECDC's initial risk assessment concludes that the risk of the disease spreading to Europe via humans or through poultry is still low at this time.
Rapid risk assessment on influenza A(H7N9) China, 12 April 2013
On 31 March 2013, Chinese authorities announced the identification of a novel reassortant A(H7N9) influenza virus isolated from three unlinked cases of severe respiratory disease in eastern China. This is the first time that human infection with avian influenza virus A(H7N9) has been identified.
Since then, human cases have continued to be reported from eastern China. As of 11 April, there were 38 laboratory-confirmed cases including ten deaths reported from four bordering provinces with a concentration of cases in and around Shanghai. Cases occur sporadically, without obvious epidemiological links. There is currently no confirmed human-to-human transmission.
Avian influenza A/H5N1: Collected risk assessments, technical guidance to public health authorities and advice to the general public
The document determines the risk to human health in Europe from highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in birds and animals and identifies areas requiring additional scientific and public health work both as single pieces of work and for risk monitoring by ECDC and its partners.
Risk assessment: The Public Health Risk from Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Emerging in Europe with Specific Reference to type A/H5N1
The document characterises the risk to human health in Europe from highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in birds and animals. The report identifies areas requiring additional scientific and public health work both as single pieces of work and for risk monitoring by ECDC and its partners.
Risk assessment: The Public Health Risk from Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Emerging in Europe with Specific Reference to type A/H5N1 Version June 1st 2006
The objective of this revised document is to further determine the risk to human health in Europe from highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in birds and animals. Specifically the additional risk that arises from the recent emergence and extension of A/H5N1 viruses into the European Union and elsewhere in the world, and the changed biology of the viruses among wild and domestic birds.
Threat Assessment Brief: Eurasian avian-like A(H1N1) swine influenza viruses
A recently published study conducted between 2011 and 2018 in China, and based on surveillance data in pigs, identified an emerging genotype 4 (G4) reassortant Eurasian avian-like (EA) A(H1N1) swine influenza virus that contains internal genes from the human A(H1N1)pdm09 and North American triple-reassortant (TR) lineage-derived internal genes.