Rapid risk assessment: Potential resurgence of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza
The increased reports of A(H5N1) outbreaks in poultry and wild bird populations, and the emergence of a further evolved lineage of the virus in poultry in some countries, do not change the current assessment of the risk to human health.
Rapid risk assessment: A(H5N1) Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Egypt – Implications for human health in Europe
Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) infections are continuing to occur in poultry and humans in Egypt. However there is no evidence of a significant change in the pattern of human illness and deaths related to A(H5N1) virus infections in the country. Certainly there are no epidemiological data or analyses consistent with adaptation of these viruses to humans.
Rapid risk assessment: Human fatality from highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection in Guangdong province, China
Following reports of a human fatality due to highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection in China’s Guangdong province, the European Commission requested an update to the assessment of risk of human-to-human transmission occurring. ECDC does not consider that there is any change to the previous assessments that the risk for EU/EEA countries is very low.
Risk assessment: Laboratory-created A(H5N1) viruses transmissible between ferrets
The results of two, as yet unpublished, investigations of laboratory-induced genetic changes in avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses have been reported to have found that a surprisingly few number of changes make the viruses transmissible between ferrets, the most commonly used model for the way influenza behaves in humans. The possibility that this could have resulted in the development in laboratories of A(H5N1) influenza viruses transmissible between humans has caused concern for public safety and generated unusually high levels of debate in the scientific community. This report summarises and explains the complex public health and scientific issues around these developments including the positive and negative aspects of some of the responses that have been proposed internationally.
Human infection with a novel avian influenza virus, A(H7N9), China - 2nd update, 8 May 2013
This second update to ECDC's initial risk assessment concludes that the risk of the disease spreading to Europe via humans or through poultry is still low at this time.
Rapid risk assessment: Severe respiratory disease associated with a novel influenza A virus, A(H7N9) China
On 31 March 2013, the Chinese authorities announced the identification of a novel influenza A virus, A(H7N9), in three seriously ill people from two provinces presenting with respiratory infections. So far, no epidemiological link has been identified between those three patients. When testing for the influenza virus, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention identified genes from both A(H7N9) and A(H9N2) viruses, thus indicating a novel reassortant avian influenza A virus. In its initial assessment of the situation, the ECDC rapid risk assessment concludes that the risk of the spread of the virus in Europe can be considered low at this stage.
Avian influenza A/H5N1: Collected risk assessments, technical guidance to public health authorities and advice to the general public
The document determines the risk to human health in Europe from highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in birds and animals and identifies areas requiring additional scientific and public health work both as single pieces of work and for risk monitoring by ECDC and its partners.
Rapid risk assessment: Human infections with avian influenza A viruses, China
This Rapid Risk Assessment summarises the latest information about human infections with avian influenza A viruses in China.
Rapid Risk Assessment: Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) in Europe – update, 20 November 2014
On 6 November 2014, German authorities reported an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A(H5N8) at a holding with 31 000 fattening turkeys in the north-east of Germany.
Rapid risk assessment: human infection with avian influenza A(H5N1) virus, Egypt, 23 December 2014
According to a WHO update published on 4 December 2014, eight new human cases of influenza A(H5N1) have been reported in Egypt, with onset of disease in November 2014, bringing the total for 2014 to 12.