Influenza vaccine effectiveness
Vaccine effectiveness is an estimate of the likelihood that a vaccine prevents influenza infection when used in everyday practice. To establish how well influenza vaccines work each season, influenza vaccine effectiveness is measured in observational studies. Vaccine effectiveness is an estimate of the likelihood that a vaccine prevents influenza infection when used in everyday practice.
Risk groups for severe influenza
Some people are at high risk of serious complications as a result of influenza, some of which can be life-threatening and result in death. The risk groups includes people who are more likely than others to develop severe disease if they should be infected, such as the elderly, pregnant women, young children and people with underlying health conditions.
Influenza vaccination coverage rates in the EU/EEA
ECDC is collecting, sharing and disseminating information on national vaccination programmes and provides guidance for improving the overall performance of the vaccination systems in EU/EEA Member States. The latest data on vaccination coverage by country in the EU/EEA of different risk- and target groups are available in the reports listed on this page.
Immunity following influenza disease and administration of influenza vaccines
For infants the first encounter with influenza viruses commonly occurs in their first or second winter season. Subsequently, each individual acquires a number of influenza infections throughout life. It is expected that up to ~15% of a European population in a temperate climate is infected with influenza in any winter season with higher percentages in children and lower in older people.
Leaflet for healthcare workers on seasonal influenza
This brochure provides information on the seriousness of the disease, its symptoms and the reasons why it is important for healthcare workers to be immunised. The leaflet is a part of the ECDC "Communication guidelines on how to increase influenza vaccination uptake and promote preventive measures to limit its spread".
Factsheet for risk groups on seasonal influenza
This factsheet provides key information on seasonal influenza and is targeting risk groups. The influenza risk groups include people who are more likely than others to develop severe disease if they should be infected, such as older adults and people with chronic medical conditions. The factsheet is a part of the ECDC "Communication guidelines on how to increase influenza vaccination uptake and promote preventive measures to limit its spread".
ECDC Vaccine Scheduler
The Vaccine Scheduler is an interactive tool that shows vaccination schedules for individual EU/EEA countries and specific age groups.
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Risk assessment: seasonal influenza 2011-2012 in Europe
The virological influenza pattern observed was not consistent enough to make a clear prediction for the 2011-2012 season in Europe. In general, the findings on the impact of influenza in the southern hemisphere in 2011 were reassuring for Europe, and the match of the A(H3N2) viruses with the vaccine was considered good.