Guide to public health measures to reduce the impact of influenza pandemics in Europe – ‘The ECDC Menu’
This document presents a menu of possible public measures to be taken during influenza pandemics, giving public health and scientific information on what is known or can be said about their likely effectiveness, costs (direct and indirect), acceptability, public expectations and other more practical considerations. The ‘ECDC Menu’ aims to help EU Member States and institutions, individually or collectively, decide which measures they will apply.
The use of vaccines for prevention of seasonal and pandemic influenzaArchived
On 3 October 2011 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and representatives of the European Vaccine Manufacturers met at ECDC in Stockholm for a regular scheduled meeting about the use of vaccines for prevention of seasonal and pandemic influenza. ECDC Director Marc Sprenger opened the meeting and ECDC influenza experts held different presentations, such as burden of influenza disease in the EU, risk groups for severe influenza disease, personal protective measures, pandemic influenza preparedness, seasonal influenza vaccines, communication.
The Declarations of Interest for ECDC Influenza Staff and the ECDC Director are available here under ECDC Transparency.
Obesity and 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) – its role and implications as an important risk factor for the development of severe influenza diseaseArchived
2 papers are reviewed: A Novel Risk Factor for a Novel Virus: Obesity and 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) and Morbid Obesity as a Risk Factor for Hospitalization and Death Due to 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Disease.
Recent findings about the clinical consequences of the 1918 pandemic – two further studies describing male autopsy results and female birth rate decline and miscarriagesArchived
The 1918 pandemic continues to provide a rich source of studies of the clinical impact of those novel viruses which between 1918 and 1920 killed up to 50 million people world-wide. These two recent studies first shows autopsy results among military recruits who died from the first influenza pandemic of the 20th century and the second suggests the impact on births.
Factsheet about seasonal influenza
Influenza is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and sometimes the lungs. It can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death. The best way to prevent flu is by getting a flu vaccine each year.