Communicable disease threats report, 5-11 October 2014, week 41
This issue of the ECDC Communicable Disease Threats Report (CDTR) covers the period 5-11 October 2014, and includes updates on influenza, West Nile virus, chikungunya, Marburg fever, Ebola virus, Enterovirus, avian influenza, MERS, dengue and polio.
- Avian influenza virus
- Chikungunya virus disease
- Democratic Republic of the Congo
- Ebola haemorrhagic fever
- Marburg haemorrhagic fever
- Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus
- Public health threat
- United States
- West Nile virus infection
- Western Africa
Epidemiological update: H3N2v cases in Ohio, US, 4 September 2014
In August 2014, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported two laboratory-confirmed human infections with a A(H3N2) variant influenza virus of swine origin A(H3N2)v in Ohio, USA.
Risk assessment: Swine-origin triple reassortant influenza A(H3N2) variant viruses in North America
Following recent increased reporting of human infections in the US with an influenza A(H3N2) variant virus of swine origin (A(H3N2)v), ECDC has updated its risk assessment. It concludes that the swine-origin influenza A(H3N2)v viruses do not currently pose a serious risk to human health in general and Europe in particular.
Epi update: Increase in number of human cases of variant influenza A(H3N2)v virus infection in the United StatesArchived
Since July 2011, 155 cases of the variant influenza A(H3N2) virus (A(H3N2)v) have been detected in the US: Hawaii (1), Indiana (113), Iowa (3), Maine (2), Ohio (30), Pennsylvania (3), Utah (1), and West Virginia (2). Most cases reported in Indiana and Ohio are recent cases. No human to human transmission has been determined among these recent cases.
Cross-species avian influenza among mammalians - report of fatal avian influenza in New England harbour sealsArchived
This academic article describes virological findings and pathological consequences of a strain of influenza A(H3N8) recently identified as part of the investigations of an outbreak of pneumonia among harbour seals in New England in the autumn.
Influenza A (H3N2)v Virus in Humans and Swine in the United States – an updateArchived
A report in the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) MMWR this week describes the investigation of mild respiratory illness among swine and people at a county fair in Indiana, USA between 8 and 14 July 2012. This is an important report as it is very clearly documents simultaneous detection of H3N2v influenza viruses in humans and swine in close contact.
CNRL in silico exercise to determine the capabilities of network laboratories to detect triple reassortant swine origin influenza A(H3N2) viruses
Following the emergence of swine influenza A(H3N2) variant (v) viruses with sporadic human infections in North America, the Community Network of Reference Laboratories (CNRL) and the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency completed an exercise to assess the CNRL’s capability to detect novel reassortant and circulating triple reassortant swine viruses (TRA) in humans.
Swine-origin triple reassortant influenza A(H3N2) viruses in North America
ECDC published an update of its previous rapid risk assessment on Swine-origin triple reassortant influenza A(H3N2) viruses in North America. This rapid risk assessment updates that of 29 November 2011, with a focus on the epidemiological information and a report on progress made to address the diagnostic needs in the European Union that will enable detection of these new viruses.
Risk assessment: Swine-origin triple reassortant influenza A(H3N2) viruses in North America
CDC has reported recent infections in children in North America with a swine-origin triple reassortant influenza A(H3N2) virus that includes a genetic component from the pandemic 2009 virus, and with probable human-to-human transmission with these viruses.