European Surveillance of Clostridium difficile infections. Surveillance protocol version 2.1
ECDC publishes a protocol developed for the surveillance Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) to address the lack of standardised surveillance of CDI in EU Member States.
Country-to-country transfer of patients and the risk of multi-resistant bacterial infectionArchived
This review outlines how increasing modalities of travel, such as aeromedical evacuation of civilians and of military personnel, medical tourism and any shared healthcare across countries, are risks for the transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms via the patient, from country to country.
Clostridium difficile infection in Europe: a hospital-based surveyArchived
Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of healthcare-associated diarrhoea in the developed world and represents a major financial burden for European healthcare systems.
Infection control measures to limit the spread of Clostridium difficileArchived
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an intestinal infection usually acquired in hospital settings, after antibiotic treatment. The clinical spectrum of CDI ranges from mild diarrhoea to severe life-threatening pseudomembranous colitis. In the recent years, an increased incidence of CDI has been reported in Europe and worldwide.
US CDC report on antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013
Antimicrobial resistance represent a serious threat to public health and patient safety and is a worldwide problem. Each year, in the European Union (EU) at least 25 000 patients die of infections with multidrug-resistant bacteria.
Healthcare-associated infections: Clostridium difficile infections - Annual Epidemiological Report for 2016
In 2016, 20 EU/EEA countries reported CDI data to ECDC for 593 surveillance periods from 556 hospitals.
Laboratory procedures for diagnosis and typing of human Clostridium difficile infection
The aim of this document is to support Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) surveillance in Europe with appropriate microbiological standardised procedures, and can be used by microbiologists, infectious diseases specialists and infection prevention control specialists.
Infection control measures to limit the spread of Clostridium difficile
Vonberg, R.-P., Kuijper, E.J., Wilcox, M.H., Barbut, F., Tull, P., Gastmeier, P., Van Den Broek, P.J., Colville, A., Coignard, B., Daha, T., Debast, S., Duerden, B.I., van den Hof, S., van der Kooi, T., Maarleveld, H.J.H., Nagy, E., Notermans, D.W., O'Driscoll, J., Patel, B., Stone, S., Wiuff, C.