European Commission/ EUR-Lex: Council Recommendation on Raising seasonal vaccination coverage among risk groups and healthcare workers (22 December 2009)
Council Recommendation on Raising seasonal vaccination coverage among risk groups and healthcare workers (22 December 2009)
Comparing introduction to Europe of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses A(H5N8) in 2014 and A(H5N1) in 2005 Eurosurveillance, vol 19, issue 50
Since the beginning of November 2014, nine outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) A(H5N8) in poultry have been detected in four European countries. In this report, similarities and differences between the modes of introduction of HPAIV A(H5N1) and A(H5N8) into Europe are described. Experiences from outbreaks of A(H5N1) in Europe demonstrated that early detection to control HPAIV in poultry has proven pivotal to minimise the risk of zoonotic transmission and prevention of human cases.
WHO Guidance for Surveillance during an Influenza Pandemic
This guidance is an update to an earlier document “Global surveillance during an influenza pandemic”, published in April 2009. It takes the lesions learned from the 2009 influenza pandemic into consideration and focuses on the key surveillance components needed during an influenza pandemic. The purpose of the updated guidance is to outline the surveillance strategies and essential data requirements that Member States can use throughout the course of an influenza pandemic to ensure informed risk management decisions in pandemic response and fulfilment of IHR (2005) core capacity requirements.
European Commission: Influenza
Vaccination policy is a competence of national authorities however, the European Commission supports EU countries to coordinate their policies and programmes. To support EU countries in maintaining or increasing rates of vaccination, the EU Commission promotes seasonal flu vaccination to at risk groups.
The Global Influenza Programme (GIP) provides Member States with strategic guidance, technical support and coordination of activities essential to make their health systems better prepared against seasonal, zoonotic and pandemic influenza threats to populations and individuals.
WHO Europe: Influenza
WHO/Europe aim to reduce influenza-related morbidity and mortality by strengthening virological and epidemiological surveillance for mild and severe influenza; using surveillance data to estimate the burden of influenza in order to prioritize national influenza vaccination programmes; and maintaining and strengthening pandemic preparedness activities at the national level. WHO/Europe also monitors the emergence of other respiratory pathogens that have the potential to spread among humans. These include coronaviruses, which cause a range of illnesses from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to the common cold.
CDC (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention): Influenza
CDC works 24/7 to protect America from health, safety and security threats, both foreign and in the U.S. Whether diseases start at home or abroad, are chronic or acute, curable or preventable, human error or deliberate attack, CDC fights disease and supports communities and citizens to do the same.
WHO: Global influenza updates
The summaries of global surveillance are based on data gathered through global and regional data sharing platforms, and direct reports from Member States.
WHO global web-based tool for influenza virological surveillance (FluNet)
FluNet is a global web-based tool for influenza virological surveillance. The number of influenza viruses detected by subtype are critical for tracking the movement of viruses globally and interpreting the epidemiological data. The data at country level are publically available and updated weekly. The results are presented in various formats including tables, maps and graphs.
WHO Regional Office for the Americas PAHO: Influenza updates (FluNet PAHO)
The influenza surveillance data is provided by Ministries of Health and National Influenza Centers of Member States to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) or from updates on the Member States' Ministry of Health web pages.