Review of the scientific literature on drivers and barriers of seasonal influenza vaccination coverage in the EU/EEA
The report aims to provide a critical review of evidence on the barriers and drivers of seasonal influenza vaccination coverage in the EU/EEA. The report focuses on high-risk groups where high coverage of seasonal flu vaccination is most important. The 2009 Council of the European Union Recommendation on seasonal influenza vaccination encourages countries to implement measures that would increase seasonal influenza vaccination uptake to at least 75% for defined older age groups, and, if possible, for other risk groups. In support of this, the ECDC report summarises the evidence on what are the barriers and what are the drivers for seasonal influenza vaccination by each risk group
Expert opinion on priority risk groups for influenza vaccination
This paper identifies and describes population groups at increased risk for severe outcomes of influenza (“risk groups”) and advocates vaccination for two major groups, namely a) persons in the older age group, usually 65 years and older; and b) persons with chronic medical conditions.
Interim technical guidance on public health use of influenza antivirals during influenza pandemics
Antiviral drugs are an important addition to the public health arsenal against influenza. This interim guidance discusses the options for their effective use, especially during a pandemic.
Interim technical guidance on use of specific pandemic influenza vaccines during the H1N1 2009 pandemic
This interim guidance outlines the possible strategies that countries may wish to adopt in the deployment of a pandemic-specific vaccine, considering the two objectives of vaccination: protecting those at greatest risk of severe disease and maintaining essential services.
Global estimates of the direct burden of influenza on the health of younger children (under age 5 years) including separate estimates for the European RegionArchived
It is accompanied by an editorial comment from Maria Zambon of the UK Health Protection Agency add link pleaseThis comprehensive study published by an international group attempts to estimate the global incidence of lower respiratory infections and premature deaths associated with influenza in children younger than 5 years.
Influenza vaccine effectiveness
Vaccine effectiveness is an estimate of the likelihood that a vaccine prevents influenza infection when used in everyday practice. To establish how well influenza vaccines work each season, influenza vaccine effectiveness is measured in observational studies. Vaccine effectiveness is an estimate of the likelihood that a vaccine prevents influenza infection when used in everyday practice.
Factsheet about seasonal influenza
Influenza is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and sometimes the lungs. It can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death. The best way to prevent flu is by getting a flu vaccine each year.
Risk groups for severe influenza
Some people are at high risk of serious complications as a result of influenza, some of which can be life-threatening and result in death. The risk groups includes people who are more likely than others to develop severe disease if they should be infected, such as the elderly, pregnant women, young children and people with underlying health conditions.
Immunity following influenza disease and administration of influenza vaccines
For infants the first encounter with influenza viruses commonly occurs in their first or second winter season. Subsequently, each individual acquires a number of influenza infections throughout life. It is expected that up to ~15% of a European population in a temperate climate is infected with influenza in any winter season with higher percentages in children and lower in older people.