Factsheet for health professionals
Human monkeypox (MPX) is a zoonotic viral disease caused by the Monkeypox virus (MPXV). The clinical presentation is similar to smallpox. Human monkeypox causes outbreaks in the tropical rainforest regions of Central and West Africa and is not a notifiable disease at the EU/EEA level. Human monkeypox was recognised as a human disease in 1970.
Facts about mumps
Mumps is a viral infection first described by Hippocrates that in its classical form causes acute parotitis and, less frequently, orchitis, meningitis and pneumonia.
Factsheet about dengue
Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease widely spread in tropical and subtropical regions. The disease is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes.
Disease factsheet about tetanus
Tetanus is an often fatal disease, which is present worldwide. It is a consequence of a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The main reservoirs of the bacterium are herbivores, which harbour the bacteria in their bowels (with no consequences for them) and disseminate the “spore form” of the bacteria in the environment with their faeces.
Disease factsheet about rubella
Rubella is a mild febrile rash illness caused by rubella virus. It is transmitted from person to person via droplets (the virus is present in throat secretions). It affects mainly, but not only, children and when pregnant women are infected, it may result in malformation of the foetus. Humans are the only reservoir of infection.
Factsheet about measles
Measles is an acute illness caused by morbillivirus. The disease is transmitted via airborne respiratory droplets, or by direct contact with nasal and throat secretions of infected individuals.
Factsheet about West Nile virus infection
West Nile virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is maintained in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and birds. Humans and horses are incidental dead-end hosts.
Factsheet about malaria
Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites. Transmission requires an intermediate mosquito (anopheles) host, which is found worldwide. Malaria transmission occurs in large areas of Central and South America, Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and the South Pacific.
Disease factsheet about poliomyelitis
Poliovirus is highly contagious and infected individuals shed virus in the faeces and from oral secretions, thus the mode of transmission is person-to-person, both via the faecal-oral and the oral-oral routes.