Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae - second update
Carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae such as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli poses a significant threat to patients and healthcare systems in all European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections are associated with high mortality, primarily due to delays in administration of effective treatment and the limited availability of treatment options. Hypervirulent carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae strains have been reported presenting an additional threat with a potential for global dissemination. The spread of high risk clones and plasmids carrying carbapenemases in healthcare settings is a major cause of the spread of CRE in EU/EEA countries. Recent events of cross-border importation after patient transfer and large regional outbreaks as well as the worsening epidemiologic situation of carbapenemase-producing CRE in the EU/EEA highlight the high risk for further spread of CRE and the need for enhanced control efforts. Options for control are outlined in the respective section below.
Rapid risk assessment: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae - first update
This update of the 2016 ECDC Rapid Risk Assessment on carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) evaluates the risk for patients and healthcare systems in EU/EEA countries due to the global spread of CRE.
Risk assessment: Update on autochthonous dengue cases in Madeira, Portugal
This is the first sustained transmission of dengue in the European Union since the 1920s. Autochthonous transmission is likely to continue until the end of the year when mosquito density will probably decrease.
Risk assessment: Epidemiological situation of West Nile virus infection in the European Union - Update, 13 July 2012
On 7 and 10 July, the Hellenic Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (KEELPNO) reported the first two human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Greece this year. When looking at the epidemiology of WNV infection in Greece since 2010, one can observe a progressive geographical expansion of WNV transmission throughout the country. For this reason, these newly confirmed cases in Athens do not come unexpected.
Rapid risk assessment: Zika virus disease epidemic, eighth update
This eighth update assesses the risks associated with the Zika virus epidemic currently affecting countries in the Americas. It provides updated information for those travelling to and returning from affected countries and for EU citizens residing in areas with active transmission. It reviews available information on the association between Zika virus infection and congenital central nervous system malformations, including microcephaly, as well as the association between Zika virus infection and Guillain–Barré syndrome. It also proposes a range of mitigation measures for EU/EEA Member States to consider.
Rapid risk assessment: Zika virus disease epidemic - 9th update, 28 October 2016
This update of ECDC’s rapid risk assessment on the Zika epidemic considers the recent epidemiological and scientific information in light of the risk to Europe and European citizens.
Rapid Outbreak Assessment: Update: Outbreak of hepatitis A virus infection in Italy and Ireland
Since publishing the ’Joint ECDC-EFSA rapid outbreak assessment: Outbreak of hepatitis A virus infection in residents and travellers to Italy’ in May, new information has emerged as a result of the epidemiological, microbiological and environmental investigations. Therefore, ECDC has updated its previous assessment.
Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus - 5th update, 27 January 2017
Fifth update of the risk assessment on human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus, summarising the epidemiological and virological information on the disease in China and Canada, and assessing the risk to public health in the EU/EEA.
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in migrants, multi-country cluster, first update 19 Dec 2016
This rapid risk assessment looks at the detection of an international cluster involving 16 cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in asylum seekers.
Human infection with a novel avian influenza virus, A(H7N9), China - 2nd update, 8 May 2013
This second update to ECDC's initial risk assessment concludes that the risk of the disease spreading to Europe via humans or through poultry is still low at this time.