Antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Europe 2011
This report presents antimicrobial resistance data for seven invasive pathogens of major public health importance: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Europe 2012
This report presents antimicrobial resistance data for seven microorganisms of major public health importance: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter species, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococci.
ECDC, EFSA and EMA Joint Scientiﬁc Opinion on a list of outcome indicators as regards surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial consumption in humans and food-producing animals
ECDC, EFSA and EMA have jointly established a list of harmonised outcome indicators to assist EU Member States in assessing their progress in reducing the use of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in both humans and food-producing animals.
ECDC/EFSA/EMA first joint report on the integrated analysis of the consumption of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from humans and food-producing animals
The ECDC, the EFSA and the EMA have for the first time jointly explored associations between consumption of antimicrobials in humans and food-producing animals, and antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from humans and food-producing animals.
Antibiotic resistance in Europe: the challenges ahead
Monnet, D.L., Suetens, C., Buksarova, A., Earnshaw, S., Gagliotti, C., Heuer, O., Magiorakos, A.P., Mantero, J., Marma, S., Navarro, Torne, A., Sodano, L., Weber, J.T., Weist, K.
Antimicrobial resistance and healthcare-associated infections - Annual epidemiological report 2014 [2012 data]
The Annual Epidemiological Report is a key ECDC publication on the epidemiology of communicable diseases of public health significance in Europe. The 2014 edition of the Annual Epidemiological Report is being published a disease group at a time and will later be compiled into one comprehensive report.
Factsheet for experts - Antimicrobial resistance
Antimicrobial resistance is the ability of a microorganism (e.g., a bacterium, a virus, or a parasite, such as the malaria parasite) to resist the action of an antimicrobial agent. Multidrug resistance corresponds to resistance of a microorganism to multiple antimicrobials. The major cause of antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms from humans remains the use of antimicrobials in human medicine, in the community and in hospitals and other healthcare settings.
EFSA/ECDC European Union summary report on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic indicator bacteria from humans, animals and food in 2013
The antimicrobial resistance data on zoonotic and indicator bacteria in 2013, submitted by 28 EU Member States, were jointly analysed by EFSA and ECDC.