Factsheet for the general public - Antimicrobial resistance
Antibiotic resistance is a natural occurrence caused by mutations in bacteria’s genes. However, excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics accelerates the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Factsheet about measles
Measles is an acute illness caused by morbillivirus. The disease is transmitted via airborne respiratory droplets, or by direct contact with nasal and throat secretions of infected individuals.
Disease factsheet about rubella
Rubella is a mild febrile rash illness caused by rubella virus. It is transmitted from person to person via droplets (the virus is present in throat secretions). It affects mainly, but not only, children and when pregnant women are infected, it may result in malformation of the foetus. Humans are the only reservoir of infection.
Factsheet about Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is an obligate human pathogen and an important cause of invasive bacterial infections in both children and adults, with the highest incidence among young children.
Disease factsheet about poliomyelitis
Poliovirus is highly contagious and infected individuals shed virus in the faeces and from oral secretions, thus the mode of transmission is person-to-person, both via the faecal-oral and the oral-oral routes.
Disease factsheet about tetanus
Tetanus is an often fatal disease, which is present worldwide. It is a consequence of a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The main reservoirs of the bacterium are herbivores, which harbour the bacteria in their bowels (with no consequences for them) and disseminate the “spore form” of the bacteria in the environment with their faeces.
Factsheet for experts - Antimicrobial resistance
Antimicrobial resistance is the ability of a microorganism (e.g., a bacterium, a virus, or a parasite, such as the malaria parasite) to resist the action of an antimicrobial agent. Multidrug resistance corresponds to resistance of a microorganism to multiple antimicrobials. The major cause of antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms from humans remains the use of antimicrobials in human medicine, in the community and in hospitals and other healthcare settings.
Tularaemia is a zoonosis (infection that could transmit from animals to humans), A range of wild and domestic animals such as hares or rodents may function as the reservoir for tularaemia, as well as ticks.
Factsheet about malaria
Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites. Transmission requires an intermediate mosquito (anopheles) host, which is found worldwide. Malaria transmission occurs in large areas of Central and South America, Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and the South Pacific.