Disease factsheet about poliomyelitis
Poliovirus is highly contagious and infected individuals shed virus in the faeces and from oral secretions, thus the mode of transmission is person-to-person, both via the faecal-oral and the oral-oral routes.
Factsheet about Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is an obligate human pathogen and an important cause of invasive bacterial infections in both children and adults, with the highest incidence among young children.
Facts about Japanese encephalitis
The Japanese encephalitis virus is present in Asia, from Japan to India and Pakistan, and outbreaks are erratic and spatially and temporally limited phenomena, occurring quite unpredictably, even if all conditions appear to be present in a definite place. It is a leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, with 30-50,000 cases reported annually.
Disease factsheet about pneumococcal disease
Despite good access to effective antibiotics, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) is still a major cause of disease and death in both developing and developed countries. Pneumococci are the main cause of bacterial respiratory tract infections, such as pneumonia, middle ear infection, and sinusitis, in all age groups.
Disease factsheet about rubella
Rubella is a mild febrile rash illness caused by rubella virus. It is transmitted from person to person via droplets (the virus is present in throat secretions). It affects mainly, but not only, children and when pregnant women are infected, it may result in malformation of the foetus. Humans are the only reservoir of infection.
Factsheet for healthcare workers on seasonal influenza
This factsheet provides key information on seasonal influenza and is targeting healthcare professionals. The factsheet is a part of the ECDC "Communication guidelines on how to increase influenza vaccination uptake and promote preventive measures to limit its spread".
Factsheet about diphtheria
Diphtheria is an acute disease caused by toxin-producing strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae (in some cases also by Corynebacterium ulcerans) bacteria, that is known to colonise mucous membranes.
Factsheet about human papillomavirus
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer after breast cancer to affect women aged 15–44 years in the European Union. Each year, there are around 33 000 cases of cervical cancer in the EU, and 15 000 deaths.
Factsheet about meningococcal disease
Meningococcal disease is caused by Neisseria meningitidis, a bacterium with human carriers as the only reservoir. It is carried in the nose, where it can remain for long periods without producing symptoms.
Facts about mumps
Mumps is a viral infection first described by Hippocrates that in its classical form causes acute parotitis and, less frequently, orchitis, meningitis and pneumonia.