Risk assessment: Laboratory-created A(H5N1) viruses transmissible between ferrets
The results of two, as yet unpublished, investigations of laboratory-induced genetic changes in avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses have been reported to have found that a surprisingly few number of changes make the viruses transmissible between ferrets, the most commonly used model for the way influenza behaves in humans. The possibility that this could have resulted in the development in laboratories of A(H5N1) influenza viruses transmissible between humans has caused concern for public safety and generated unusually high levels of debate in the scientific community. This report summarises and explains the complex public health and scientific issues around these developments including the positive and negative aspects of some of the responses that have been proposed internationally.
CNRL in silico exercise to determine the capabilities of network laboratories to detect triple reassortant swine origin influenza A(H3N2) viruses
Following the emergence of swine influenza A(H3N2) variant (v) viruses with sporadic human infections in North America, the Community Network of Reference Laboratories (CNRL) and the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency completed an exercise to assess the CNRL’s capability to detect novel reassortant and circulating triple reassortant swine viruses (TRA) in humans.
Influenza A(H3N2)v laboratory detection questionnaire results
Following the emergence of swine influenza A(H3N2) variant (v) viruses with sporadic human infections in North America, ECDC and the Community Network of Reference Laboratories (CNRL) disseminated a questionnaire to explore the RT-PCR capability of influenza reference laboratories in EU/EEA countries to detect A(H3N2)v viruses in their day-to-day diagnostics and to subtype them as swine-origin variant viruses.
Networking of Public Health Microbiology Laboratories Bolsters Europe's Defenses against Infectious Diseases
Albiger, B., Revez, J., Leitmeyer, K.C., Struelens, M.J.
Estimation of the number of exposed people during highly pathogenic avian influenza virus outbreaks in EU/EEA countries, October 2016–September 2018
Adlhoch, C., Miteva, A., Zdravkova, A., Miškić, T., Kneževic, D., Perdikaris, S., Śmietanka, K., Świętoń, E., Kopriva, V., Chudý, M., Romero González, L.J., Moreno Gil, I., Wallén Norell, A., Verdonck, F.
Laboratory preparedness in eu/eea countries for detection of novel avian influenza a(H7N9) virus, May 2013
Broberg, E., Pereyaslov, D., Struelens, M., Palm, D., Meijer, A., Ellis, J., Zambon, M., McCauley, J., Daniels, R.
A Human Case Of Swine Influenza Virus Infection In Europe - Implications For Human Health And Research
Van Reeth, K., Nicoll, A.