Rapid risk assessment: Public health risks related to communicable diseases during the hajj 2019, Saudi Arabia, 9–14 August 2019
In 2019, the hajj will take place between 9 and 14 August. The risk for EU/EEA citizens to become infected with communicable diseases during the 2019 hajj is considered low, thanks to the vaccination requirements for travelling to Makkah (Mecca) and the Saudi Arabian preparedness plans that address the management of health hazards during and after hajj.
- Food- and waterborne diseases
- Hepatitis A
- Hepatitis B
- Mass gathering
- Meningococcal disease
- Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus
- Public health threat
- Saudi Arabia
- Travellers' health
- Vaccine preventable diseases
- Vector-borne disease
Risk assessment guidelines for infectious diseases transmitted on aircraft
In the closed cabin environment of modern airplanes, passengers are frequently exposed to various infectious diseases. This report looks at 12 infectious diseases and, by systematically evaluating literature on on-board transmission, attempts to assess the risk of infection via air circulation in airplanes.
These guidelines are complemented by operational guidelines in relation to tuberculosis, new emerging airborne diseases (e.g. SARS) and meningococcal infections.