Review of the scientific literature on drivers and barriers of seasonal influenza vaccination coverage in the EU/EEA
The report aims to provide a critical review of evidence on the barriers and drivers of seasonal influenza vaccination coverage in the EU/EEA. The report focuses on high-risk groups where high coverage of seasonal flu vaccination is most important. The 2009 Council of the European Union Recommendation on seasonal influenza vaccination encourages countries to implement measures that would increase seasonal influenza vaccination uptake to at least 75% for defined older age groups, and, if possible, for other risk groups. In support of this, the ECDC report summarises the evidence on what are the barriers and what are the drivers for seasonal influenza vaccination by each risk group
Expert opinion on priority risk groups for influenza vaccination
This paper identifies and describes population groups at increased risk for severe outcomes of influenza (“risk groups”) and advocates vaccination for two major groups, namely a) persons in the older age group, usually 65 years and older; and b) persons with chronic medical conditions.
Guide to public health measures to reduce the impact of influenza pandemics in Europe – ‘The ECDC Menu’
This document presents a menu of possible public measures to be taken during influenza pandemics, giving public health and scientific information on what is known or can be said about their likely effectiveness, costs (direct and indirect), acceptability, public expectations and other more practical considerations. The ‘ECDC Menu’ aims to help EU Member States and institutions, individually or collectively, decide which measures they will apply.
Systematic review on the incubation and infectiousness/shedding period of communicable diseases in children
Illnesses caused by infectious diseases are common in children in schools or other childcare settings. Currently there is no common EU approach to the control of communicable diseases in schools or other childcare settings, and existing information is uncertain.
Seasonal influenza vaccination in Europe – Vaccination recommendations and coverage rates for 2013-14 and 2014-15
Overview of vaccination recommendations and coverage rates in the EU Member States for the 2013–14 and 2014–15 influenza seasons.
ECDC Vaccine Scheduler
The Vaccine Scheduler is an interactive tool that shows vaccination schedules for individual EU/EEA countries and specific age groups. With this tool comparisons can be made for vaccination schedules between two countries or by disease for all or a selection of countries.
- Hepatitis A
- Hepatitis B
- Human papillomavirus infection
- Influenza in humans, seasonal
- Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease
- Meningococcal disease
- Pneumococcal disease
- Prevention and control
- Rotavirus infection
- Tick-borne diseases
Questions and answers about antivirals
Frequently asked questions about the use of antivirals for prevention and treatment of influenza; What are the uses of antivirals against seasonal influenza? Which are the antivirals we use in Europe against seasonal influenza and who should get them? If antivirals are so good why don’t doctors give them out more often? Do people who have been immunized against influenza need antivirals?
Personal protective measures (non-pharmaceutical) for reducing the risk of acquiring or transmitting human influenza
In the absence of a specific vaccine, there are a number of personal measures that people may take to reduce their risk of acquiring influenza. Influenza is a viral infection that spreads from person to person principally when people cough or sneeze, or by direct or indirect contact with respiratory secretions from infectious persons that are on their hands or on surfaces. The following recommendations are based in part on evidence from studies and in part on judgement based on public health experience.
Factsheet about seasonal influenza
Influenza is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and sometimes the lungs. It can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death. The best way to prevent flu is by getting a flu vaccine each year.
Flu transmits easily from person to person. It does this through the air or from contaminated hands or surfaces. The risk of getting or causing infection is easily reduced by taking some simple preventive steps. Immunisation in particular decreases the risk of a person being infected. Proper use of flu vaccines is the most effective form of protection.