Behavioural surveillance toolkitArchived



In 2009, the ECDC published a technical report which contains an analysis of the current state of the art regarding behavioural surveillance programmes related to HIV and STI in EU/EFTA countries, including an in-depth analysis of past and ongoing behavioural surveillance as practiced in these countries. These data have been used to draw up a plan for the implementation of a key set of behavioural indicators related to HIV and STI in Europe.

The overall objective of this work is to support the development of a key set of indicators in order to ensure availability of comparable behavioural data and to support Member States to implement behavioural surveillance or surveys by preparing a user-friendly toolkit and framework (protocol) for the implementation of behavioural surveillance and second generation surveillance related to HIV and STI in Europe.

These pages describe a toolkit for improving HIV/STI behavioural and second generation surveillance in EU/EFTA countries. It is based on the results of the in-depth analysis of the situation prevailing in EU/EFTA countries regarding HIV/STI behavioural surveillance, and on a search of relevant documentation.


Principles and guidelines

The principles and methods of second generation surveillance have been discussed and described in several documents and articles – particularly those issued by the UNAIDS/WHO Working Group on Global HIV/AIDS and STI Surveillance:

  1. UNAIDS/WHO Working Group on Global HIV/AIDS and STI Surveillance. Guidelines for second generation HIV surveillance. Geneva: UNAIDS/WHO; 2000. Available at:
  2. Initiating second generation HIV surveillance systems: practical guidelines. Geneva: UNAIDS/WHO; 2002. Available at:
  3. UNAIDS/WHO Working Group on Global HIV/AIDS and STD Surveillance. The pre-surveillance assessment: guidelines for planning serosurveillance of HIV, prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and the behavioural components of second generation surveillance of HIV. Geneva: Co-published by World Health Organization, UNAIDS and Family Health International; 2005. 
    Available at:
  4. Garnett G, Garcia-Calleja J, Rehle T, Gregson S. Behavioural data as an adjunct to HIV surveillance data. Sex Transm Infect 2006;82:57-62.
  5. Bayer R, Fairchild A. Ethical issues to be considered in second generation surveillance. 2004. Document commissioned by the WHO/UNAIDS Surveillance Working Group. Available from:

Monitoring and evaluation

Monitoring and evaluation toolkits or guides proposed by organisations working in the HIV/AIDS field may be of use to help integrate behavioural surveillance in general evaluation activities. References and links to M&E toolkits or guides from the relevant international organisations are listed below. 

    • Monitoring and evaluation guidance and tools
    • Global HIV / M&E Information website designed for M&E specialists supporting HIV initiatives
    • Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). National AIDS programmes, a guide to monitoring and evaluation. Geneva, UNAIDS, 2000 
    • UNAIDS / MERG (Monitoring and Evaluation Refernce Group). Organizing Framework for a Functional National HIV Monitoring and Evaluation System. UNAIDS, Geneva, April 08
  2. The Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM)
    • Monitoring and Evaluation toolkit
  3. World Bank GAMET
    • Monitoring and evaluation resources
    • An inventory of programmme evaluation tools and guidelines
  4. Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium (RHRC)
    • Monitoring and evaluation toolkit. 2004
  5. MEASURE Evaluation
    Monitoring and evaluation systems (website, with various tools)


Links are provided with respect to indicators defined by international bodies. Technical definitions of indicators are provided, generally including computing indications, known strengths and limitations, and guidelines for interpretations.


2. European Monitoring Centre for Drug and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)

An overview of the drug-related infectious diseases (DRID) key indicator 


Toolkit materials


This page includes indicators proposed for behavioural surveillance in Europe, providing definitions of each indicator and relevant references and web resources. Two groups of indicators are proposed: 1) Core Common Indicators that are to be used with all populations, and 2) Secondary and/or population-specific indicators.


This section contains two parts. The first part includes references to documents, related weblinks and existing toolkits regarding behavioural surveillance methodology and evaluation methods in the HIV/AIDS field.